skip to main content


The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 5:00 PM ET until 11:00 PM ET on Friday, June 21 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

This content will become publicly available on June 30, 2024

Title: NeuWS: Neural wavefront shaping for guidestar-free imaging through static and dynamic scattering media

Diffraction-limited optical imaging through scattering media has the potential to transform many applications such as airborne and space-based imaging (through the atmosphere), bioimaging (through skin and human tissue), and fiber-based imaging (through fiber bundles). Existing wavefront shaping methods can image through scattering media and other obscurants by optically correcting wavefront aberrations using high-resolution spatial light modulators—but these methods generally require (i) guidestars, (ii) controlled illumination, (iii) point scanning, and/or (iv) statics scenes and aberrations. We propose neural wavefront shaping (NeuWS), a scanning-free wavefront shaping technique that integrates maximum likelihood estimation, measurement modulation, and neural signal representations to reconstruct diffraction-limited images through strong static and dynamic scattering media without guidestars, sparse targets, controlled illumination, nor specialized image sensors. We experimentally demonstrate guidestar-free, wide field-of-view, high-resolution, diffraction-limited imaging of extended, nonsparse, and static/dynamic scenes captured through static/dynamic aberrations.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Science Advances
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Science Advances
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Acousto-optic imaging (AOI) enables optical-contrast imaging deep inside scattering samples via localized ultrasound-modulation of scattered light. While AOI allows optical investigations at depths, its imaging resolution is inherently limited by the ultrasound wavelength, prohibiting microscopic investigations. Here, we propose a computational imaging approach that allows optical diffraction-limited imaging using a conventional AOI system. We achieve this by extracting diffraction-limited imaging information from speckle correlations in the conventionally detected ultrasound-modulated scattered-light fields. Specifically, we identify that since “memory-effect” speckle correlations allow estimation of the Fourier magnitude of the field inside the ultrasound focus, scanning the ultrasound focus enables robust diffraction-limited reconstruction of extended objects using ptychography (i.e., we exploit the ultrasound focus as the scanned spatial-gate probe required for ptychographic phase retrieval). Moreover, we exploit the short speckle decorrelation-time in dynamic media, which is usually considered a hurdle for wavefront-shaping- based approaches, for improved ptychographic reconstruction. We experimentally demonstrate noninvasive imaging of targets that extend well beyond the memory-effect range, with a 40-times resolution improvement over conventional AOI.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Wavefront‐shaping (WS) enables imaging through scattering tissues like bone, which is important for neuroscience and bone‐regeneration research. WS corrects for the optical aberrations at a given depth and field‐of‐view (FOV) within the sample; the extent of the validity of which is limited to a region known as the isoplanatic patch (IP). Knowing this parameter helps to estimate the number of corrections needed for WS imaging over a given FOV. In this paper, we first present direct transmissive measurement of murine skull IP using digital optical phase conjugation based focusing. Second, we extend our previously reported phase accumulation ray tracing (PART) method to provide in‐situin‐silicoestimation of IP, called correlative PART (cPART). Our results show an IP range of 1 to 3 μm for mice within an age range of 8 to 14 days old and 1.00 ± 0.25 μm in a 12‐week old adult skull. Consistency between the two measurement approaches indicates that cPART can be used to approximate the IP before a WS experiment, which can be used to calculate the number of corrections required within a given field of view.

    more » « less
  3. Focusing light through turbid media using wavefront shaping generally requires a noninvasive guide star to provide feedback on the focusing process. Here we report a photoacoustic guide star mechanism suitable for wavefront shaping through a scattering wall that is based on the fluctuations in the photoacoustic signals generated in a micro-vessel filled with flowing absorbers. The standard deviation of photoacoustic signals generated from random distributions of particles is dependent on the illumination volume and increases nonlinearly as the illumination volume is decreased. We harness this effect to guide wavefront shaping using the standard deviation of the photoacoustic response as the feedback signal. We further demonstrate sub-acoustic resolution optical focusing through a diffuser with a genetic algorithm optimization routine.

    more » « less
  4. One of the top priorities in observational astronomy is the direct imaging and characterization of extrasolar planets (exoplanets) and planetary systems. Direct images of rocky exoplanets are of particular interest in the search for life beyond the Earth, but they tend to be rather challenging targets since they are orders-of-magnitude dimmer than their host stars and are separated by small angular distances that are comparable to the classicalλ<#comment/>/Ddiffraction limit, even for the coming generation of 30 m class telescopes. Current and planned efforts for ground-based direct imaging of exoplanets combine high-order adaptive optics (AO) with a stellar coronagraph observing at wavelengths ranging from the visible to the mid-IR. The primary barrier to achieving high contrast with current direct imaging methods is quasi-static speckles, caused largely by non-common path aberrations (NCPAs) in the coronagraph optical train. Recent work has demonstrated that millisecond imaging, which effectively “freezes” the atmosphere’s turbulent phase screens, should allow the wavefront sensor (WFS) telemetry to be used as a probe of the optical system to measure NCPAs. Starting with a realistic model of a telescope with an AO system and a stellar coronagraph, this paper provides simulations of several closely related regression models that take advantage of millisecond telemetry from the WFS and coronagraph’s science camera. The simplest regression model, called the naïve estimator, does not treat the noise and other sources of information loss in the WFS. Despite its flaws, in one of the simulations presented herein, the naïve estimator provides a useful estimate of an NCPA of∼<#comment/>0.5radian RMS (≈<#comment/>λ<#comment/>/13), with an accuracy of∼<#comment/>0.06radian RMS in 1 min of simulated sky time on a magnitude 8 star. Thebias-corrected estimatorgeneralizes the regression model to account for the noise and information loss in the WFS. A simulation of the bias-corrected estimator with 4 min of sky time included an NCPA of∼<#comment/>0.05radian RMS (≈<#comment/>λ<#comment/>/130) and an extended exoplanet scene. The joint regression of the bias-corrected estimator simultaneously achieved an NCPA estimate with an accuracy of∼<#comment/>5×<#comment/>10−<#comment/>3radian RMS and an estimate of the exoplanet scene that was free of the self-subtraction artifacts typically associated with differential imaging. The5σ<#comment/>contrast achieved by imaging of the exoplanet scene was∼<#comment/>1.7×<#comment/>10−<#comment/>4at a distance of3λ<#comment/>/Dfrom the star and∼<#comment/>2.1×<#comment/>10−<#comment/>5at10λ<#comment/>/D. These contrast values are comparable to the very best on-sky results obtained from multi-wavelength observations that employ both angular differential imaging (ADI) and spectral differential imaging (SDI). This comparable performance is despite the fact that our simulations are quasi-monochromatic, which makes SDI impossible, nor do they have diurnal field rotation, which makes ADI impossible. The error covariance matrix of the joint regression shows substantial correlations in the exoplanet and NCPA estimation errors, indicating that exoplanet intensity and NCPA need to be estimated self-consistently to achieve high contrast.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Label‐free super‐resolution (LFSR) imaging relies on light‐scattering processes in nanoscale objects without a need for fluorescent (FL) staining required in super‐resolved FL microscopy. The objectives of this Roadmap are to present a comprehensive vision of the developments, the state‐of‐the‐art in this field, and to discuss the resolution boundaries and hurdles that need to be overcome to break the classical diffraction limit of the label‐free imaging. The scope of this Roadmap spans from the advanced interference detection techniques, where the diffraction‐limited lateral resolution is combined with unsurpassed axial and temporal resolution, to techniques with true lateral super‐resolution capability that are based on understanding resolution as an information science problem, on using novel structured illumination, near‐field scanning, and nonlinear optics approaches, and on designing superlenses based on nanoplasmonics, metamaterials, transformation optics, and microsphere‐assisted approaches. To this end, this Roadmap brings under the same umbrella researchers from the physics and biomedical optics communities in which such studies have often been developing separately. The ultimate intent of this paper is to create a vision for the current and future developments of LFSR imaging based on its physical mechanisms and to create a great opening for the series of articles in this field.

    more » « less