skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 5:00 PM ET until 11:00 PM ET on Friday, June 21 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


This content will become publicly available on December 11, 2024

Title: Multifunctional composite with hybrid carbon fiber and carbonaceous coconut particle reinforcement

The utilization of multifunctional composite materials presents significant advantages in terms of system efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and miniaturization, making them highly valuable for a wide range of industrial applications. One approach to harness the multifunctionality of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) is to integrate it with a secondary material to form a hybrid composite. In our previous research, we explored the use of carbonaceous material derived from coconut shells as a sustainable alternative to inorganic fillers, aiming to enhance the out-of-plane mechanical performance of CFRP. In this study, our focus is to investigate the influence of carbonized coconut shell particles on the non-structural properties of CFRP, specifically electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, thermal stability, and water absorption resistance. The carbonized material was prepared by thermal processing at 400 °C. Varying proportions of carbonized material, ranging from 1% to 5% by weight, were thoroughly mixed with epoxy resin to form the matrix used for impregnating woven carbon fabric with a volume fraction of 29%. Through measurements of scattering parameters, we found that the hybrid composites with particle loadings up to 3% exhibited EMI shielding effectiveness suitable for industrial applications. Also, incorporating low concentrations of carbonized particle to CFRP enhances the thermal stability of hybrid CFRP composites. However, the inclusion of carbonized particle to CFRP has a complex effect on the glass transition temperature. Even so, the hybrid composite with 2% particle loading exhibits the highest glass transition temperature and lowest damping factor among the tested variations. Furthermore, when subjected to a 7-day water immersion test, hybrid composites with 3% or less amount of carbonized particle showed the least water absorption. The favorable outcome can be attributed to good interfacial bonding at the matrix/fiber interface. Conversely, at higher particle concentrations, aggregation of particles and formation of interfacial and internal pores was observed, ultimately resulting in deteriorated measured properties. The improved non-structural functionalities observed in these biocomposites suggest the potential for a more sustainable and cost-effective alternative to their inorganic-based counterparts. This advancement in multifunctional composites could pave the way for enhanced applications of biocomposites in various industries.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
1946231
NSF-PAR ID:
10496324
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmats.2023.1278222/full
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Frontiers in Materials
Volume:
10
ISSN:
2296-8016
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have been increasingly used to replace metal parts in many industries such as aerospace, marine, automotive, and sporting goods. The CFRP parts compared with their metallic counter parts have the advantages of lightweight, significantly higher tensile strength, stiffer, and corrosion resistant. On the other hand, compared with many metal parts, the CFRP parts have many well-known disadvantages including the lower toughness, lower through-thickness tensile and shear strengths, lower thermal conductivity, lower electrical conductivity, and lower operating temperature. These disadvantages have made the conversion from metal parts into CFRP parts challenging and costly to design, manufacture, and maintain. The use of nanoparticles in polymer has been studied in the recent two decades. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been dispersed in various thermoset and thermoplastic polymers and improved the mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties; however, the properties were not comparable to CFRP. Later, researchers tried to infuse CNTs or CNFs into either carbon fiber preforms [1] or glass fiber preforms [2] for improving the mechanical properties. But the results were marginal and with great uncertainty due to the challenges of nanoparticle dispersion, filtering, and alignment while being infused through the fiber preform. The glass fiber preform experiments ended with relatively more consistent improvement than the carbon fiber preform experiments since that the glass fiber preform has significantly larger pores than the carbon fiber preform' s. The small pore size presented a great challenge for infusing millions of unaligned long CNTs or CNFs through the carbon fiber preform without being filtered. To infuse long CNFs or CNTs through the carbon fiber preform and achieve reliable improvements, especially for 55% or higher carbon fiber volume fraction with increasingly tighter pores, an innovative plan for the processing and nano-reinforcing strategy is necessary. The z-threading strategy [3, 4, 5] has been reported to have consistent experimental successes in achieving the statistically meaningful improvement in multifunctional properties. The manufacturing steps of the CNF z-threaded CFRP (ZT-CFRP) are: (1) disperse the CNFs in a resin, (2) use a strong electrical field to align the CNFs in either the B-stage epoxy film or a CNF/resin impregnated sponge layer, whereas the CNFs are aligned in the through-thickness direction of the film or sponge layer. (3) place the resin film or sponge layer on a preheated dry carbon fiber fabric and press the resin film into the hot carbon fabric and allow the resin flow to carry the well-aligned CNFs to thread through the pores in the carbon fabric. (4) cool down the resin saturated and CNF z-threaded carbon fiber fabric to obtain the ZT-CFRP prepreg. (5) use the ZT-CFRP prepreg to make the ZT-CFRP laminate. Compared with the traditional CFRP, the ZT-CFRP laminates were reported of having improvement in the Mode-I delamination toughness, interlaminar shear strength, longitudinal compressive strength, through-thickness electrical conductivity, through-thickness thermal conductivity, and can reach the carbon fiber volume fraction of 55-80%. It is an effective approach to achieve a multifunctional CFRP for potentially expanding CFRP's applications. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Cultivated natural fibers have a huge possibility for green and sustainable reinforcement for polymers, but their limited load-bearing ability and flammability prevent them from wide applications in composites. According to the beam theory, normal stress is the maximum at the outermost layers but zero at the mid-plane under bending (with (non)linear strain distribution). Shear stress is the maximum at the mid-plane but manageable for most polymers. Accordingly, a laminated composite made of hybrid fiber-reinforced shape memory photopolymer was developed, incorporating strong synthetic glass fibers over a weak core of natural hemp fibers. Even with a significant proportion of natural hemp fibers, the mechanical properties of the hybrid composites were close to those reinforced solely with glass fibers. The composites exhibited good shape memory properties, with at least 52% shape fixity ratio and 71% shape recovery ratio, and 24 MPa recovery stress. After 40 s burning, a hybrid composite still maintained 83.53% of its load carrying capacity. Therefore, in addition to largely maintaining the load carrying capacity through the hybrid reinforcement design, the use of shape memory photopolymer endowed a couple of new functionalities to the composites: the plastically deformed laminated composite beam can largely return to its original shape due to the shape memory effect of the polymer matrix, and the flame retardancy of the polymer matrix makes the flammable hemp fiber survive the fire hazard. The findings of this study present exciting prospects for utilizing low-strength and flammable natural fibers in multifunctional load-bearing composites that possess both flame retardancy and shape memory properties.

     
    more » « less
  3. Site description. This data package consists of data obtained from sampling surface soil (the 0-7.6 cm depth profile) in black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) dominated forest and black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) saltmarsh along the Gulf of Mexico coastline in peninsular west-central Florida, USA. This location has a subtropical climate with mean daily temperatures ranging from 15.4 °C in January to 27.8 °C in August, and annual precipitation of 1336 mm. Precipitation falls as rain primarily between June and September. Tides are semi-diurnal, with 0.57 m median amplitudes during the year preceding sampling (U.S. NOAA National Ocean Service, Clearwater Beach, Florida, station 8726724). Sea-level rise is 4.0 ± 0.6 mm per year (1973-2020 trend, mean ± 95 % confidence interval, NOAA NOS Clearwater Beach station). The A. germinans mangrove zone is either adjacent to water or fringed on the seaward side by a narrow band of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). A near-monoculture of J. roemerianus is often adjacent to and immediately landward of the A. germinans zone. The transition from the mangrove to the J. roemerianus zone is variable in our study area. An abrupt edge between closed-canopy mangrove and J. roemerianus monoculture may extend for up to several hundred meters in some locations, while other stretches of ecotone present a gradual transition where smaller, widely spaced trees are interspersed into the herbaceous marsh. Juncus roemerianus then extends landward to a high marsh patchwork of succulent halophytes (including Salicornia bigellovi, Sesuvium sp., and Batis maritima), scattered dwarf mangrove, and salt pans, followed in turn by upland vegetation that includes Pinus sp. and Serenoa repens. Field design and sample collection. We established three study sites spaced at approximately 5 km intervals along the western coastline of the central Florida peninsula. The sites consisted of the Salt Springs (28.3298°, -82.7274°), Energy Marine Center (28.2903°, -82.7278°), and Green Key (28.2530°, -82.7496°) sites on the Gulf of Mexico coastline in Pasco County, Florida, USA. At each site, we established three plot pairs, each consisting of one saltmarsh plot and one mangrove plot. Plots were 50 m^2 in size. Plots pairs within a site were separated by 230-1070 m, and the mangrove and saltmarsh plots composing a pair were 70-170 m apart. All plot pairs consisted of directly adjacent patches of mangrove forest and J. roemerianus saltmarsh, with the mangrove forests exhibiting a closed canopy and a tree architecture (height 4-6 m, crown width 1.5-3 m). Mangrove plots were located at approximately the midpoint between the seaward edge (water-mangrove interface) and landward edge (mangrove-marsh interface) of the mangrove zone. Saltmarsh plots were located 20-25 m away from any mangrove trees and into the J. roemerianus zone (i.e., landward from the mangrove-marsh interface). Plot pairs were coarsely similar in geomorphic setting, as all were located on the Gulf of Mexico coastline, rather than within major sheltering formations like Tampa Bay, and all plot pairs fit the tide-dominated domain of the Woodroffe classification (Woodroffe, 2002, "Coasts: Form, Process and Evolution", Cambridge University Press), given their conspicuous semi-diurnal tides. There was nevertheless some geomorphic variation, as some plot pairs were directly open to the Gulf of Mexico while others sat behind keys and spits or along small tidal creeks. Our use of a plot-pair approach is intended to control for this geomorphic variation. Plot center elevations (cm above mean sea level, NAVD 88) were estimated by overlaying the plot locations determined with a global positioning system (Garmin GPS 60, Olathe, KS, USA) on a LiDAR-derived bare-earth digital elevation model (Dewberry, Inc., 2019). The digital elevation model had a vertical accuracy of ± 10 cm (95 % CI) and a horizontal accuracy of ± 116 cm (95 % CI). Soil samples were collected via coring at low tide in June 2011. From each plot, we collected a composite soil sample consisting of three discrete 5.1 cm diameter soil cores taken at equidistant points to 7.6 cm depth. Cores were taken by tapping a sleeve into the soil until its top was flush with the soil surface, sliding a hand under the core, and lifting it up. Cores were then capped and transferred on ice to our laboratory at the University of South Florida (Tampa, Florida, USA), where they were combined in plastic zipper bags, and homogenized by hand into plot-level composite samples on the day they were collected. A damp soil subsample was immediately taken from each composite sample to initiate 1 y incubations for determination of active C and N (see below). The remainder of each composite sample was then placed in a drying oven (60 °C) for 1 week with frequent mixing of the soil to prevent aggregation and liberate water. Organic wetland soils are sometimes dried at 70 °C, however high drying temperatures can volatilize non-water liquids and oxidize and decompose organic matter, so 50 °C is also a common drying temperature for organic soils (Gardner 1986, "Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1", Soil Science Society of America); we accordingly chose 60 °C as a compromise between sufficient water removal and avoidance of non-water mass loss. Bulk density was determined as soil dry mass per core volume (adding back the dry mass equivalent of the damp subsample removed prior to drying). Dried subsamples were obtained for determination of soil organic matter (SOM), mineral texture composition, and extractable and total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) within the following week. Sample analyses. A dried subsample was apportioned from each composite sample to determine SOM as mass loss on ignition at 550 °C for 4 h. After organic matter was removed from soil via ignition, mineral particle size composition was determined using a combination of wet sieving and density separation in 49 mM (3 %) sodium hexametaphosphate ((NaPO_3)_6) following procedures in Kettler et al. (2001, Soil Science Society of America Journal 65, 849-852). The percentage of dry soil mass composed of silt and clay particles (hereafter, fines) was calculated as the mass lost from dispersed mineral soil after sieving (0.053 mm mesh sieve). Fines could have been slightly underestimated if any clay particles were burned off during the preceding ignition of soil. An additional subsample was taken from each composite sample to determine extractable N and organic C concentrations via 0.5 M potassium sulfate (K_2SO_4) extractions. We combined soil and extractant (ratio of 1 g dry soil:5 mL extractant) in plastic bottles, reciprocally shook the slurry for 1 h at 120 rpm, and then gravity filtered it through Fisher G6 (1.6 μm pore size) glass fiber filters, followed by colorimetric detection of nitrite (NO_2^-) + nitrate (NO_3^-) and ammonium (NH_4^+) in the filtrate (Hood Nowotny et al., 2010,Soil Science Society of America Journal 74, 1018-1027) using a microplate spectrophotometer (Biotek Epoch, Winooski, VT, USA). Filtrate was also analyzed for dissolved organic C (referred to hereafter as extractable organic C) and total dissolved N via combustion and oxidation followed by detection of the evolved CO_2 and N oxide gases on a Formacs HT TOC/TN analyzer (Skalar, Breda, The Netherlands). Extractable organic N was then computed as total dissolved N in filtrate minus extractable mineral N (itself the sum of extractable NH_4-N and NO_2-N + NO_3-N). We determined soil total C and N from dried, milled subsamples subjected to elemental analysis (ECS 4010, Costech, Inc., Valencia, CA, USA) at the University of South Florida Stable Isotope Laboratory. Median concentration of inorganic C in unvegetated surface soil at our sites is 0.5 % of soil mass (Anderson, 2019, Univ. of South Florida M.S. thesis via methods in Wang et al., 2011, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 174, 241-257). Inorganic C concentrations are likely even lower in our samples from under vegetation, where organic matter would dilute the contribution of inorganic C to soil mass. Nevertheless, the presence of a small inorganic C pool in our soils may be counted in the total C values we report. Extractable organic C is necessarily of organic C origin given the method (sparging with HCl) used in detection. Active C and N represent the fractions of organic C and N that are mineralizable by soil microorganisms under aerobic conditions in long-term soil incubations. To quantify active C and N, 60 g of field-moist soil were apportioned from each composite sample, placed in a filtration apparatus, and incubated in the dark at 25 °C and field capacity moisture for 365 d (as in Lewis et al., 2014, Ecosphere 5, art59). Moisture levels were maintained by frequently weighing incubated soil and wetting them up to target mass. Daily CO_2 flux was quantified on 29 occasions at 0.5-3 week intervals during the incubation period (with shorter intervals earlier in the incubation), and these per day flux rates were integrated over the 365 d period to compute an estimate of active C. Observations of per day flux were made by sealing samples overnight in airtight chambers fitted with septa and quantifying headspace CO_2 accumulation by injecting headspace samples (obtained through the septa via needle and syringe) into an infrared gas analyzer (PP Systems EGM 4, Amesbury, MA, USA). To estimate active N, each incubated sample was leached with a C and N free, 35 psu solution containing micronutrients (Nadelhoffer, 1990, Soil Science Society of America Journal 54, 411-415) on 19 occasions at increasing 1-6 week intervals during the 365 d incubation, and then extracted in 0.5 M K_2SO_4 at the end of the incubation in order to remove any residual mineral N. Active N was then quantified as the total mass of mineral N leached and extracted. Mineral N in leached and extracted solutions was detected as NH_4-N and NO_2-N + NO_3-N via colorimetry as above. This incubation technique precludes new C and N inputs and persistently leaches mineral N, forcing microorganisms to meet demand by mineralizing existing pools, and thereby directly assays the potential activity of soil organic C and N pools present at the time of soil sampling. Because this analysis commences with disrupting soil physical structure, it is biased toward higher estimates of active fractions. Calculations. Non-mobile C and N fractions were computed as total C and N concentrations minus the extractable and active fractions of each element. This data package reports surface-soil constituents (moisture, fines, SOM, and C and N pools and fractions) in both gravimetric units (mass constituent / mass soil) and areal units (mass constituent / soil surface area integrated through 7.6 cm soil depth, the depth of sampling). Areal concentrations were computed as X × D × 7.6, where X is the gravimetric concentration of a soil constituent, D is soil bulk density (g dry soil / cm^3), and 7.6 is the sampling depth in cm. 
    more » « less
  4. This article highlights the absence of published paradigms hybridized by The Cuckoo Search (CS) and Stochastic Paint Optimizer (SPO) for optimizing truss structures using composite materials under natural frequency constraints. The article proposes a novel optimization algorithm called CSSPO for optimizing truss structures made of composite materials, known as fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites, to address this gap. Optimization problems of truss structures under frequency constraints are recognized as challenging due to their non-linear and non-convex search spaces that contain numerous local optima. The proposed methodology produces high-quality optimal solutions with less computational effort than the original methods. The aim of this work is to compare the performance of carbon FRP (CFRP), glass FRP (GFRP), and steel using a novel hybrid algorithm to provide valuable insights and inform decision-making processes in material selection and design. Four benchmark structure trusses with natural frequency constraints were utilized to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the CSSPO. The numerical analysis findings indicate that the CSSPO outperforms the classical SPO and exhibits comparable or superior performance when compared to the SPO. The study highlights that implementing CFRP and GFRP composites in truss construction leads to a notable reduction in weight compared to using steel. 
    more » « less
  5. Beckwith, S. ; Flinn, B. ; Dustin, J. (Ed.)
    A novel additive manufacturing process utilizing the laminated object manufacturing (LOM) technology with woven natural fiber-reinforced biopolymer is investigated in this paper. Traditional synthetic composite materials are products from nonrenewable crude oil with limited end-of-life options, and therefore not environmentally friendly. The continuous woven natural fiber is used to significantly strengthen the mechanical properties of biocomposites and PLA biopolymer as the matrix made the material completely biodegradable. This is one of the promising replacements for synthetic composites in applications such as automotive panels, constructive materials, and sports and musical instruments. A LOM 3D printer prototype has been designed and built by the team using a laser beam in cutting the woven natural fiber reinforcement and molten PLA powder to bind layers together. Tensile and flexural properties of the LOM 3D printed biocomposites were measured using ASTM test standards and then compared with corresponding values measured from pure PLA specimens 3D printed through FDM. Improved mechanical properties from LOM 3D-printed biocomposites were identified by the team. SEM imaging was performed to identify the polymer infusing and fiber-matrix binding situations. This research took advantage of both the material and process’s benefits and combine them into one sustainable practice. 
    more » « less