skip to main content

Title: Electrochemical Bubble Delamination and Transfer of CVD Graphene from Copper to Si/SiO2 Utilizing Mechanical Assistance
High quality graphene can efficiently be grown on large surface areas of copper foil through chemical vapor deposition (CVD). To transfer CVD graphene onto a substrate for use in nanoscale photonic devices a process called electrochemical bubble delamination is utilized. During the delamination and transfer procedure the CVD graphene is at its most susceptible. Therefore, the incentive to develop a minimal-contact and replicable process is high. The use of a mechanical stage controlled by an actuator is a promising method of avoiding significant mechanical defects like folding or tearing and is capable of ensuring the film is delaminated at the right speed and from bottom to top. The quality of the transferred graphene is varied with regions of high-quality graphene up to 80x80µm while the typical transfer region has a large presence of gaps, cracks, and PMMA residues. It is evident that extending the mechanical assistance to other parts of the transfer process may be valuable, however, the occurrence of mechanical and chemical defects in the transferred graphene is still a limiting factor in the use of electrochemical bubble delamination.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Chair: Petru Fodor, Department of
Publisher / Repository:
Bulletin of the American Physical Society
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Bulletin of the American Physical Society
Edition / Version:
Medium: X
Cleveland State University Room: SI 149
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Sreenivasan, S.V. (Ed.)
    A roll-to-roll (R2R) technique is especially desirable for transfer of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene towards high-speed, low-cost, renewable, and environmentally friendly manufacturing of graphene-based electronic devices, such as flexible touchscreens, field effect transistors and organic solar cells. A R2R graphene dry transfer system is recently developed. Monolayer graphene is transferred from a copper growth substrate to a polymer backing layer by mechanical peeling. In this work, we present an experimental study to examine the effects of line speed of the mechanical peeling process on the transferred graphene quality. It is shown that the effect of line speed is not monotonic, and an optimal speed exists to yield the highest and most consistent electrical conductivity of transferred graphene among the process conditions studied. This study provides understanding of process parameter effects and demonstrates the potential of the R2R dry transfer process for large-scale CVD graphene toward industrial applications. 
    more » « less
  2. The unique two-dimensional structure and outstanding electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties of graphene have attracted the interest of scientists and engineers from various fields. The first step in translating the excellent properties of graphene into practical applications is the preparation of large area, continuous graphene films. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene has received increasing attention because it provides access to large-area, uniform, and continuous films of high quality. However, current CVD synthetic techniques utilize metal substrates (Cu or Ni) to catalyse the growth of graphene and post-growth transfer of the graphene film to a substrate of interest is critical for most applications such as electronics, photonics, and spintronics. Here we discuss recent advances in the transfer of as-grown CVD graphene to target substrates. The methods that afford CVD graphene on a target substrate are summarized under three categories: transfer with a support layer, transfer without a support layer, and direct growth on target substrates. At present the first two groups dominate the field and research efforts are directed towards refining the choice of the support layer. The support layer plays a vital role in the transfer process because it has direct contact with the atomically thin graphene surface, affecting its properties and determining the quality of the transferred graphene. 
    more » « less
  3. null (Ed.)
    Scalable graphene synthesis and facile large-area membrane fabrication are imperative to advance nanoporous atomically thin membranes (NATMs) for molecular separations. Although chemical vapor deposition (CVD) allows for roll-to-roll high-quality monolayer graphene synthesis, facile transfer with atomically clean interfaces to porous supports for large-area NATM fabrication remains extremely challenging. Sacrificial polymer scaffolds commonly used for graphene transfer typically leave polymer residues detrimental to membrane performance and transfers without polymer scaffolds suffer from low yield resulting in high non-selective leakage through NATMs. Here, we systematically study the factors influencing graphene NATM fabrication and report on a novel roll-to-roll manufacturing compatible isopropanol-assisted hot lamination (IHL) process that enables scalable, facile and clean transfer of CVD graphene on to polycarbonate track etched (PCTE) supports with coverage ≥99.2%, while preserving support integrity/porosity. We demonstrate fully functional centimeter-scale graphene NATMs that show record high permeances (∼2–3 orders of magnitude higher) and better selectivity than commercially available state-of-the-art polymeric dialysis membranes, specifically in the 0–1000 Da range. Our work highlights a scalable approach to fabricate graphene NATMs for practical applications and is fully compatible with roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. 
    more » « less
  4. Selective proton (H + ) permeation through the atomically thin lattice of graphene and other 2D materials offers new opportunities for energy conversion/storage and novel separations. Practical applications necessitate scalable synthesis via approaches such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) that inevitably introduce sub-nanometer defects, grain boundaries and wrinkles, and understanding their influence on H + transport and selectivity for large-area membranes is imperative but remains elusive. Using electrically driven transport of H + and potassium ions (K + ) we probe the influence of intrinsic sub-nanometer defects in monolayer CVD graphene across length-scales for the first time. At the micron scale, the areal H + conductance of CVD graphene (∼4.5–6 mS cm −2 ) is comparable to that of mechanically exfoliated graphene indicating similarly high crystalline quality within a domain, albeit with K + transport (∼1.7 mS cm −2 ). However, centimeter-scale Nafion|graphene|Nafion devices with several graphene domains show areal H + conductance of ∼339 mS cm −2 and K + conductance of ∼23.8 mS cm −2 (graphene conductance for H + is ∼1735 mS cm −2 and for K + it is ∼47.6 mS cm −2 ). Using a mathematical-transport-model and Nafion filled polycarbonate track etched supports, we systematically deconstruct the observed orders of magnitude increase in H + conductance for centimeter-scale CVD graphene. The mitigation of defects (>1.6 nm), wrinkles and tears via interfacial polymerization results in a conductance of ∼1848 mS cm −2 for H + and ∼75.3 mS cm −2 for K + (H + /K + selectivity of ∼24.5) via intrinsic sub-nanometer proton selective defects in CVD graphene. We demonstrate atomically thin membranes with significantly higher ionic selectivity than state-of-the-art proton exchange membranes while maintaining comparable H + conductance. Our work provides a new framework to assess H + conductance and selectivity of large-area 2D membranes and highlights the role of intrinsic sub-nanometer proton selective defects for practical applications. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    A major challenge for graphene applications is the lack of mass production technology for large‐scale and high‐quality graphene growth and transfer. Here, a roll‐to‐roll (R2R) dry transfer process for large‐scale graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition is reported. The process is fast, controllable, and environmentally benign. It avoids chemical contamination and allows the reuse of graphene growth substrates. By controlling tension and speed of the R2R dry transfer process, the electrical sheet resistance is achieved as 9.5 kΩ sq−1, the lowest ever reported among R2R dry transferred graphene samples. The R2R dry transferred samples are used to fabricate graphene‐based field‐effect transistors (GFETs) on polymer. It is demonstrated that these flexible GFETs feature a near‐zero doping level and a gate leakage current one to two orders of magnitude lower than those fabricated using wet‐chemical etched graphene samples. The scalability and uniformity of the R2R dry transferred graphene is further demonstrated by successfully transferring a 3 × 3 in2sample and measuring its field‐effect mobility with 36 millimeter‐scaled GFETs evenly spaced on the sample. The field‐effect mobility of the R2R dry transferred graphene is determined to be 205 ± 36 cm2 V−1.

    more » « less