skip to main content


This content will become publicly available on August 9, 2024

Title: PhyAuth: Physical-Layer Message Authentication for ZigBee Networks
ZigBee is a popular wireless communication standard for Internet of Things (IoT) networks. Since each ZigBee network uses hop-by-hop network-layer message authentication based Yanchao Zhang Arizona State University Star E E Tree E E R E Mesh E E R E E E on a common network key, it is highly vulnerable to packetC E injection attacks, in which the adversary exploits the compromised network key to inject arbitrary fake packets from any spoofed address to disrupt network operations and conCoordinator C R E sume the network/device resources. In this paper, we present PhyAuth, a PHY hop-by-hop message authentication frameE E C R R E E E R R C R E E Router E E E End Device Figure 1: ZigBee network topologies. work to defend against packet-injection attacks in ZigBee networks. The key idea of PhyAuth is to let each ZigBee E The coordinator acts as a central node responsible for mantransmitter embed into its PHY signals a PHY one-time password (called POTP) derived from a device-specific secret key and an efficient cryptographic hash function. An authentic POTP serves as the transmitter’s PHY transmission permission for the corresponding packet. PhyAuth provides three schemes to embed, detect, and verify POTPs based on different features of ZigBee PHY signals. In addition, PhyAuth involves lightweight PHY signal processing and no change to the ZigBee protocolstack. Comprehensive USRP experiments confirm that PhyAuth can efficiently detect fake packets with very low false-positive and false-negative rates while having a negligible negative impact on normal data transmissions.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2055751
NSF-PAR ID:
10501432
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
USENIX
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the 32nd USENIX Security Symposium
Format(s):
Medium: X
Location:
Anaheim, CA, USA
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Controller Area Network (CAN) is the de-facto standard in-vehicle network system. Despite its wide adoption by automobile manufacturers, the lack of security design makes it vulnerable to attacks. For instance, broadcasting packets without authentication allows the impersonation of electronic control units (ECUs). Prior mitigations, such as message authentication or intrusion detection systems, fail to address the compatibility requirement with legacy ECUs, stealthy and sporadic malicious messaging, or guaranteed attack detection. We propose a novel authentication system called ShadowAuth that overcomes the aforementioned challenges by offering backward-compatible packet authentication to ECUs without requiring ECU firmware source code. Specifically, our authentication scheme provides transparent CAN packet authentication without modifying existing CAN packet definitions (e.g., J1939) via automatic ECU firmware instrumentation technique to locate CAN packet transmission code, and instrument authentication code based on the CAN packet behavioral transmission patterns. ShadowAuth enables vehicles to detect state-of-the-art CAN attacks, such as bus-off and packet injection, responsively within 60ms without false positives. ShadowAuth provides a sound and deployable solution for real-world ECUs. 
    more » « less
  2. With the fast development of Fifth-/Sixth-Generation (5G/6G) communications and the Internet of Video Things (IoVT), a broad range of mega-scale data applications emerge (e.g., all-weather all-time video). These network-based applications highly depend on reliable, secure, and real-time audio and/or video streams (AVSs), which consequently become a target for attackers. While modern Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology is integrated with many multimedia applications to help enhance its applications, the development of General Adversarial Networks (GANs) also leads to deepfake attacks that enable manipulation of audio or video streams to mimic any targeted person. Deepfake attacks are highly disturbing and can mislead the public, raising further challenges in policy, technology, social, and legal aspects. Instead of engaging in an endless AI arms race “fighting fire with fire”, where new Deep Learning (DL) algorithms keep making fake AVS more realistic, this paper proposes a novel approach that tackles the challenging problem of detecting deepfaked AVS data leveraging Electrical Network Frequency (ENF) signals embedded in the AVS data as a fingerprint. Under low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) conditions, Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) and Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) spectrum estimation techniques are investigated to detect the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) of interest. For reliable authentication, we enhanced the ENF signal embedded through an artificial power source in a noisy environment using the spectral combination technique and a Robust Filtering Algorithm (RFA). The proposed signal estimation workflow was deployed on a continuous audio/video input for resilience against frame manipulation attacks. A Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) approach was selected to minimize the false positive rate of signal correlations. Extensive experimental analysis for a reliable ENF edge-based estimation in deepfaked multimedia recordings is provided to facilitate the need for distinguishing artificially altered media content. 
    more » « less
  3. Summary

    This paper deals with secure state estimation of cyber‐physical systems subject to switching (on/off) attack signals and injection of fake packets (via either packet substitution or insertion of extra packets). The random set paradigm is adopted in order to model, viarandom finite sets(RFSs), the switching nature of both system attacks and the injection of fake measurements. The problem of detecting an attack on the system and jointly estimating its state, possibly in the presence of fake measurements, is then formulated and solved in the Bayesian framework for systems with and without direct feedthrough of the attack input to the output. This leads to the analytical derivation of ahybrid Bernoulli filter(HBF) that updates in real time the joint posterior density of a Bernoulli attack RFS and of the state vector. A closed‐form Gaussian mixture implementation of the proposed HBF is fully derived in the case of invertible direct feedthrough. Finally, the effectiveness of the developed tools for joint attack detection and secure state estimation is tested on two case studies concerning a benchmark system for unknown input estimation and a standard IEEE power network application.

     
    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
    Defense mechanisms against network-level attacks are commonly based on the use of cryptographic techniques, such as lengthy message authentication codes (MAC) that provide data integrity guarantees. However, such mechanisms require significant resources (both computational and network bandwidth), which prevents their continuous use in resource-constrained cyber-physical systems (CPS). Recently, it was shown how physical properties of controlled systems can be exploited to relax these stringent requirements for systems where sensor measurements and actuator commands are transmitted over a potentially compromised network; specifically, that merely intermittent use of data authentication (i.e., at occasional time points during system execution), can still provide strong Quality-of-Control (QoC) guarantees even in the presence of false-data injection attacks, such as Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) attacks. Consequently, in this work, we focus on integrating security into existing resource-constrained CPS, in order to protect against MitM attacks on a system where a set of control tasks communicates over a real-time network with system sensors and actuators. We introduce a design-time methodology that incorporates requirements for QoC in the presence of attacks into end-to-end timing constraints for real-time control transactions, which include data acquisition and authentication, real-time network messages, and control tasks. This allows us to formulate a mixed integer linear programming-based method for direct synthesis of schedulable tasks and message parameters (i.e., deadlines and offsets) that do not violate timing requirements for the already deployed controllers, while adding a sufficient level of protection against network-based attacks; specifically, the synthesis method also provides suitable intermittent authentication policies that ensure the desired QoC levels under attack. To additionally reduce the security-related bandwidth overhead, we propose the use of cumulative message authentication at time instances when the integrity of messages from subsets of sensors should be ensured. Furthermore, we introduce a method for the opportunistic use of the remaining resources to further improve the overall QoC guarantees while ensuring system (i.e., task and message) schedulability. Finally, we demonstrate applicability and scalability of our methodology on synthetic automotive systems as well as a real-world automotive case-study. 
    more » « less
  5. The recent prevalence of machine learning-based techniques and smart device embedded sensors has enabled widespread human-centric sensing applications. However, these applications are vulnerable to false data injection attacks (FDIA) that alter a portion of the victim's sensory signal with forged data comprising a targeted trait. Such a mixture of forged and valid signals successfully deceives the continuous authentication system (CAS) to accept it as an authentic signal. Simultaneously, introducing a targeted trait in the signal misleads human-centric applications to generate specific targeted inference; that may cause adverse outcomes. This paper evaluates the FDIA's deception efficacy on sensor-based authentication and human-centric sensing applications simultaneously using two modalities - accelerometer, blood volume pulse signals. We identify variations of the FDIA such as different forged signal ratios, smoothed and non-smoothed attack samples. Notably, we present a novel attack detection framework named Siamese-MIL that leverages the Siamese neural networks' generalizable discriminative capability and multiple instance learning paradigms through a unique sensor data representation. Our exhaustive evaluation demonstrates Siamese-MIL's real-time execution capability and high efficacy in different attack variations, sensors, and applications. 
    more » « less