skip to main content


This content will become publicly available on January 22, 2025

Title: Probe beam deflection technique with liquid immersion for fast mapping of thermal conductance

Frequency-domain probe beam deflection (FD-PBD) is an experimental technique for measuring thermal properties that combines heating by a modulated pump laser and measurement of the temperature field via thermoelastic displacement of the sample surface. In the conventional implementation of FD-PBD, the data are mostly sensitive to the in-plane thermal diffusivity. We describe an extension of FD-PBD that introduces sensitivity to through-plane thermal conductance by immersing the sample in a dielectric liquid and measuring the beam deflection created by the temperature field of the liquid. We demonstrate the accuracy of the method by measuring (1) the thermal conductivity of a 310 nm thick thermally grown oxide on Si, (2) the thermal boundary conductance of bonded interface between a 3C-SiC film and a single crystal diamond substrate, and (3) the thermal conductivities of several bulk materials. We map the thermal boundary conductance of a 3C-SiC/diamond interface with a precision of 1% using a lock-in time constant of 3 ms and dwell time of 15 ms. The spatial resolution and maximum probing depth are proportional to the radius of the focused laser beams and can be varied over the range of 1–20 μm and 4–80 μm, respectively, by varying the 1/e2 intensity radius of the focused laser beams from 2 to 40 μm. FD-PBD with liquid immersion thus enables fast mapping of spatial variations in thermal boundary conductance of deeply buried interfaces.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
1720633
NSF-PAR ID:
10502483
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
AIP
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Volume:
124
Issue:
4
ISSN:
0003-6951
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract High thermal conductivity electronic materials are critical components for high-performance electronic and photonic devices as both active functional materials and thermal management materials. We report an isotropic high thermal conductivity exceeding 500 W m −1 K −1 at room temperature in high-quality wafer-scale cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) crystals, which is the second highest among large crystals (only surpassed by diamond). Furthermore, the corresponding 3C-SiC thin films are found to have record-high in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivity, even higher than diamond thin films with equivalent thicknesses. Our results resolve a long-standing puzzle that the literature values of thermal conductivity for 3C-SiC are lower than the structurally more complex 6H-SiC. We show that the observed high thermal conductivity in this work arises from the high purity and high crystal quality of 3C-SiC crystals which avoids the exceptionally strong defect-phonon scatterings. Moreover, 3C-SiC is a SiC polytype which can be epitaxially grown on Si. We show that the measured 3C-SiC-Si thermal boundary conductance is among the highest for semiconductor interfaces. These findings provide insights for fundamental phonon transport mechanisms, and suggest that 3C-SiC is an excellent wide-bandgap semiconductor for applications of next-generation power electronics as both active components and substrates. 
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    Liquid–solid interface energy transport has been a long-term research topic. Past research mostly focused on theoretical studies while there are only a handful of experimental reports because of the extreme challenges faced in measuring such interfaces. Here, by constructing nanosecond energy transport state-resolved Raman spectroscopy (nET-Raman), we characterize thermal conductance across a liquid–solid interface: water–WS 2 nm film. In the studied system, one side of a nm-thick WS 2 film is in contact with water and the other side is isolated. WS 2 samples are irradiated with 532 nm wavelength lasers and their temperature evolution is monitored by tracking the Raman shift variation in the E 2g mode at several laser powers. Steady and transient heating states are created using continuous wave and nanosecond pulsed lasers, respectively. We find that the thermal conductance between water and WS 2 is in the range of 2.5–11.8 MW m −2 K −1 for three measured samples (22, 33, and 88 nm thick). This is in agreement with molecular dynamics simulation results and previous experimental work. The slight differences are attributed mostly to the solid–liquid interaction at the boundary and the surface energies of different solid materials. Our detailed analysis confirms that nET-Raman is very robust in characterizing such interface thermal conductance. It completely eliminates the need for laser power absorption and Raman temperature coefficients, and is insensitive to the large uncertainties in 2D material properties input. 
    more » « less
  3. Time-domain thermoreflectance and frequency-domain thermoreflectance (FDTR) have been widely used for non-contact measurement of anisotropic thermal conductivity of materials with high spatial resolution. However, the requirement of a high thermoreflectance coefficient restricts the choice of metal coating and laser wavelength. The accuracy of the measurement is often limited by the high sensitivity to the radii of the laser beams. We describe an alternative frequency-domain pump-probe technique based on probe beam deflection. The beam deflection is primarily caused by thermoelastic deformation of the sample surface, with a magnitude determined by the thermal expansion coefficient of the bulk material to measure. We derive an analytical solution to the coupled elasticity and heat diffusion equations for periodic heating of a multilayer sample with anisotropic elastic constants, thermal conductivity, and thermal expansion coefficients. In most cases, a simplified model can reliably describe the frequency dependence of the beam deflection signal without knowledge of the elastic constants and thermal expansion coefficients of the material. The magnitude of the probe beam deflection signal is larger than the maximum magnitude achievable by thermoreflectance detection of surface temperatures if the thermal expansion coefficient is greater than 5 × 10 −6  K −1 . The uncertainty propagated from laser beam radii is smaller than that in FDTR when using a large beam offset. We find a nearly perfect matching of the measured signal and model prediction, and measure thermal conductivities within 6% of accepted values for materials spanning the range of polymers to gold, 0.1–300 W/(m K). 
    more » « less
  4. X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) provide femtosecond high-power x-ray beams with high spatial coherence, resulting in numerous influential discoveries. Diffractive optics allow for the easy manipulation and measurement of an x-ray beam’s wavefront and enable the realization of complex designed properties and specifications. For example, phase gratings can be used as x-ray beam splitters to enable beam sharing by multiple end stations or in-situ beam monitoring, including spectrum and wavefront measurements. Wavefront preservation and high efficiency and survivability under high power are requirements for such beam splitters. Diamond is the most suitable choice for phase grating fabrication, due to its high thermal conductivity that enables it to survive high average power XFEL beams. We have fabricated a large area (2×2 mm2) high aspect ratio (13:1) diamond grating on a diamond plate. Testing was performed at 9.5 keV and resulted in a high splitting efficiency (30%). Tunable efficiency was obtained via tilting the grating with respect to the x-ray beam. Wavefront fidelity of the split beams were measured to less thanλ/100 using a Talbot wavefront sensor.

     
    more » « less
  5. Abstract High-power continuous-wave (CW) lasers are used in a variety of areas including industry, medicine, communications, and defense. Yet, conventional optics, which are based on multi-layer coatings, are damaged when illuminated by high-power CW laser light, primarily due to thermal loading. This hampers the effectiveness, restricts the scope and utility, and raises the cost and complexity of high-power CW laser applications. Here we demonstrate monolithic and highly reflective mirrors that operate under high-power CW laser irradiation without damage. In contrast to conventional mirrors, ours are realized by etching nanostructures into the surface of single-crystal diamond, a material with exceptional optical and thermal properties. We measure reflectivities of greater than 98% and demonstrate damage-free operation using 10 kW of CW laser light at 1070 nm, focused to a spot of 750 μm diameter. In contrast, we observe damage to a conventional dielectric mirror when illuminated by the same beam. Our results initiate a new category of optics that operate under extreme conditions, which has potential to improve or create new applications of high-power lasers. 
    more » « less