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Title: Real-time evaluation of terpene emissions and exposures during the use of scented wax products in residential buildings with PTR-TOF-MS
Scented wax products, such as candles and wax warmers/melts, are popular fragranced consumer products that are commonly used in residential buildings. As scented wax products are intentionally fragranced to produce pleasant smellscapes for occupants, they may represent an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to indoor atmospheres. The aim of this study is to evaluate terpene emission factors (EFs) and inhalation intake fractions (iFs) for scented wax products to better understand their impact on indoor chemistry and chemical exposures. Full-scale emission experiments were conducted in the Purdue zEDGE Test House using a variety of scented candles (n = 5) and wax warmers/melts (n = 14) under different outdoor air exchange rates (AERs). Terpene concentrations were measured in real-time using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS). PTR-TOF-MS measurements revealed that scented candle and wax warmer/melt products emit a variety of monoterpenes (C10H16) and oxygen-containing monoterpenoids (C10H14O, C10H16O, C10H18O, C10H20O), with peak concentrations in the range of 10^−1 to 10^2 ppb. Monoterpene EFs were much greater for scented wax warmers/melts (C10H16 EFs ~ 10^2 mg per g wax consumed) compared to scented candles (C10H16 EFs ~ 10^−1 to 100 mg per g wax consumed). Significant emissions of reactive terpenes from both products, along with nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2) from candles, depleted indoor ozone (O3) concentrations. Terpene iFs were similar between the two products (iFs ~ 10^3 ppm) and increased with decreasing outdoor AER. Terpene iFs during concentration decay periods were similar to, or greater than, iFs during active emission periods for outdoor AERs ≤ 3.0 h^−1. Overall, scented wax warmers/melts were found to release greater quantities of monoterpenes compared to other fragranced consumer products used in the home, including botanical disinfectants, hair care products, air fresheners, and scented sprays.  more » « less
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Elsevier Ltd.
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Building and Environment
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Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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