skip to main content


Title: Surface layer response to heterogeneous tree canopy distributions: roughness regime regulates secondary flow polarity

Large-eddy simulation was used to model turbulent atmospheric surface layer (ASL) flow over canopies composed of streamwise-aligned rows of synthetic trees of height,$h$, and systematically arranged to quantify the response to variable streamwise spacing,$\delta _1$, and spanwise spacing,$\delta _2$, between adjacent trees. The response to spanwise and streamwise heterogeneity has, indeed, been the topic of a sustained research effort: the former resulting in formation of Reynolds-averaged counter-rotating secondary cells, the latter associated with the$k$- and$d$-type response. No study has addressed the confluence of both, and results herein show secondary flow polarity reversal across ‘critical’ values of$\delta _1$and$\delta _2$. For$\delta _2/\delta \lesssim 1$and$\gtrsim 2$, where$\delta$is the flow depth, the counter-rotating secondary cells are aligned such that upwelling and downwelling, respectively, occurs above the elements. The streamwise spacing$\delta _1$regulates this transition, with secondary cell reversal occurring first for the largest$k$-type cases, as elevated turbulence production within the canopy necessitates entrainment of fluid from aloft. The results are interpreted through the lens of a benchmark prognostic closure for effective aerodynamic roughness,$z_{0,{Eff.}} = \alpha \sigma _h$, where$\alpha$is a proportionality constant and$\sigma _h$is height root mean square. We report$\alpha \approx 10^{-1}$, the value reported over many decades for a broad range of rough surfaces, for$k$-type cases at small$\delta _2$, whereas the transition to$d$-type arrangements necessitates larger$\delta _2$. Though preliminary, results highlight the non-trivial response to variation of streamwise and spanwise spacing.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
1839929
NSF-PAR ID:
10504971
Author(s) / Creator(s):
;
Publisher / Repository:
Journal of Fluid Mechanics
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Fluid Mechanics
Volume:
946
ISSN:
0022-1120
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    This paper will study almost everywhere behaviors of functions on partition spaces of cardinals possessing suitable partition properties. Almost everywhere continuity and monotonicity properties for functions on partition spaces will be established. These results will be applied to distinguish the cardinality of certain subsets of the power set of partition cardinals.

    The following summarizes the main results proved under suitable partition hypotheses.

    If$\kappa $is a cardinal,$\epsilon < \kappa $,${\mathrm {cof}}(\epsilon ) = \omega $,$\kappa \rightarrow _* (\kappa )^{\epsilon \cdot \epsilon }_2$and$\Phi : [\kappa ]^\epsilon _* \rightarrow \mathrm {ON}$, then$\Phi $satisfies the almost everywhere short length continuity property: There is a club$C \subseteq \kappa $and a$\delta < \epsilon $so that for all$f,g \in [C]^\epsilon _*$, if$f \upharpoonright \delta = g \upharpoonright \delta $and$\sup (f) = \sup (g)$, then$\Phi (f) = \Phi (g)$.

    If$\kappa $is a cardinal,$\epsilon $is countable,$\kappa \rightarrow _* (\kappa )^{\epsilon \cdot \epsilon }_2$holds and$\Phi : [\kappa ]^\epsilon _* \rightarrow \mathrm {ON}$, then$\Phi $satisfies the strong almost everywhere short length continuity property: There is a club$C \subseteq \kappa $and finitely many ordinals$\delta _0, ..., \delta _k \leq \epsilon $so that for all$f,g \in [C]^\epsilon _*$, if for all$0 \leq i \leq k$,$\sup (f \upharpoonright \delta _i) = \sup (g \upharpoonright \delta _i)$, then$\Phi (f) = \Phi (g)$.

    If$\kappa $satisfies$\kappa \rightarrow _* (\kappa )^\kappa _2$,$\epsilon \leq \kappa $and$\Phi : [\kappa ]^\epsilon _* \rightarrow \mathrm {ON}$, then$\Phi $satisfies the almost everywhere monotonicity property: There is a club$C \subseteq \kappa $so that for all$f,g \in [C]^\epsilon _*$, if for all$\alpha < \epsilon $,$f(\alpha ) \leq g(\alpha )$, then$\Phi (f) \leq \Phi (g)$.

    Suppose dependent choice ($\mathsf {DC}$),${\omega _1} \rightarrow _* ({\omega _1})^{\omega _1}_2$and the almost everywhere short length club uniformization principle for${\omega _1}$hold. Then every function$\Phi : [{\omega _1}]^{\omega _1}_* \rightarrow {\omega _1}$satisfies a finite continuity property with respect to closure points: Let$\mathfrak {C}_f$be the club of$\alpha < {\omega _1}$so that$\sup (f \upharpoonright \alpha ) = \alpha $. There is a club$C \subseteq {\omega _1}$and finitely many functions$\Upsilon _0, ..., \Upsilon _{n - 1} : [C]^{\omega _1}_* \rightarrow {\omega _1}$so that for all$f \in [C]^{\omega _1}_*$, for all$g \in [C]^{\omega _1}_*$, if$\mathfrak {C}_g = \mathfrak {C}_f$and for all$i < n$,$\sup (g \upharpoonright \Upsilon _i(f)) = \sup (f \upharpoonright \Upsilon _i(f))$, then$\Phi (g) = \Phi (f)$.

    Suppose$\kappa $satisfies$\kappa \rightarrow _* (\kappa )^\epsilon _2$for all$\epsilon < \kappa $. For all$\chi < \kappa $,$[\kappa ]^{<\kappa }$does not inject into${}^\chi \mathrm {ON}$, the class of$\chi $-length sequences of ordinals, and therefore,$|[\kappa ]^\chi | < |[\kappa ]^{<\kappa }|$. As a consequence, under the axiom of determinacy$(\mathsf {AD})$, these two cardinality results hold when$\kappa $is one of the following weak or strong partition cardinals of determinacy:${\omega _1}$,$\omega _2$,$\boldsymbol {\delta }_n^1$(for all$1 \leq n < \omega $) and$\boldsymbol {\delta }^2_1$(assuming in addition$\mathsf {DC}_{\mathbb {R}}$).

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    We prove three results concerning the existence of Bohr sets in threefold sumsets. More precisely, lettingGbe a countable discrete abelian group and$\phi _1, \phi _2, \phi _3: G \to G$be commuting endomorphisms whose images have finite indices, we show that

    If$A \subset G$has positive upper Banach density and$\phi _1 + \phi _2 + \phi _3 = 0$, then$\phi _1(A) + \phi _2(A) + \phi _3(A)$contains a Bohr set. This generalizes a theorem of Bergelson and Ruzsa in$\mathbb {Z}$and a recent result of the first author.

    For any partition$G = \bigcup _{i=1}^r A_i$, there exists an$i \in \{1, \ldots , r\}$such that$\phi _1(A_i) + \phi _2(A_i) - \phi _2(A_i)$contains a Bohr set. This generalizes a result of the second and third authors from$\mathbb {Z}$to countable abelian groups.

    If$B, C \subset G$have positive upper Banach density and$G = \bigcup _{i=1}^r A_i$is a partition,$B + C + A_i$contains a Bohr set for some$i \in \{1, \ldots , r\}$. This is a strengthening of a theorem of Bergelson, Furstenberg and Weiss.

    All results are quantitative in the sense that the radius and rank of the Bohr set obtained depends only on the indices$[G:\phi _j(G)]$, the upper Banach density ofA(in (1)), or the number of sets in the given partition (in (2) and (3)).

     
    more » « less
  3. Electrophoresis is the motion of a charged colloidal particle in an electrolyte under an applied electric field. The electrophoretic velocity of a spherical particle depends on the dimensionless electric field strength$\beta =a^*e^*E_\infty ^*/k_B^*T^*$, defined as the ratio of the product of the applied electric field magnitude$E_\infty ^*$and particle radius$a^*$, to the thermal voltage$k_B^*T^*/e^*$, where$k_B^*$is Boltzmann's constant,$T^*$is the absolute temperature, and$e^*$is the charge on a proton. In this paper, we develop a spectral element algorithm to compute the electrophoretic velocity of a spherical, rigid, dielectric particle, of fixed dimensionless surface charge density$\sigma$over a wide range of$\beta$. Here,$\sigma =(e^*a^*/\epsilon ^*k_B^*T^*)\sigma ^*$, where$\sigma ^*$is the dimensional surface charge density, and$\epsilon ^*$is the permittivity of the electrolyte. For moderately charged particles ($\sigma ={O}(1)$), the electrophoretic velocity is linear in$\beta$when$\beta \ll 1$, and its dependence on the ratio of the Debye length ($1/\kappa ^*$) to particle radius (denoted by$\delta =1/(\kappa ^*a^*)$) agrees with Henry's formula. As$\beta$increases, the nonlinear contribution to the electrophoretic velocity becomes prominent, and the onset of this behaviour is$\delta$-dependent. For$\beta \gg 1$, the electrophoretic velocity again becomes linear in field strength, approaching the Hückel limit of electrophoresis in a dielectric medium, for all$\delta$. For highly charged particles ($\sigma \gg 1$) in the thin-Debye-layer limit ($\delta \ll 1$), our computations are in good agreement with recent experimental and asymptotic results.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Cohesive powersof computable structures are effective analogs of ultrapowers, where cohesive sets play the role of ultrafilters. Let$\omega $,$\zeta $, and$\eta $denote the respective order-types of the natural numbers, the integers, and the rationals when thought of as linear orders. We investigate the cohesive powers of computable linear orders, with special emphasis on computable copies of$\omega $. If$\mathcal {L}$is a computable copy of$\omega $that is computably isomorphic to the usual presentation of$\omega $, then every cohesive power of$\mathcal {L}$has order-type$\omega + \zeta \eta $. However, there are computable copies of$\omega $, necessarily not computably isomorphic to the usual presentation, having cohesive powers not elementarily equivalent to$\omega + \zeta \eta $. For example, we show that there is a computable copy of$\omega $with a cohesive power of order-type$\omega + \eta $. Our most general result is that if$X \subseteq \mathbb {N} \setminus \{0\}$is a Boolean combination of$\Sigma _2$sets, thought of as a set of finite order-types, then there is a computable copy of$\omega $with a cohesive power of order-type$\omega + \boldsymbol {\sigma }(X \cup \{\omega + \zeta \eta + \omega ^*\})$, where$\boldsymbol {\sigma }(X \cup \{\omega + \zeta \eta + \omega ^*\})$denotes the shuffle of the order-types inXand the order-type$\omega + \zeta \eta + \omega ^*$. Furthermore, ifXis finite and non-empty, then there is a computable copy of$\omega $with a cohesive power of order-type$\omega + \boldsymbol {\sigma }(X)$.

     
    more » « less
  5. We study the spaces of twisted conformal blocks attached to a$\Gamma$-curve$\Sigma$with marked$\Gamma$-orbits and an action of$\Gamma$on a simple Lie algebra$\mathfrak {g}$, where$\Gamma$is a finite group. We prove that if$\Gamma$stabilizes a Borel subalgebra of$\mathfrak {g}$, then the propagation theorem and factorization theorem hold. We endow a flat projective connection on the sheaf of twisted conformal blocks attached to a smooth family of pointed$\Gamma$-curves; in particular, it is locally free. We also prove that the sheaf of twisted conformal blocks on the stable compactification of Hurwitz stack is locally free. Let$\mathscr {G}$be the parahoric Bruhat–Tits group scheme on the quotient curve$\Sigma /\Gamma$obtained via the$\Gamma$-invariance of Weil restriction associated to$\Sigma$and the simply connected simple algebraic group$G$with Lie algebra$\mathfrak {g}$. We prove that the space of twisted conformal blocks can be identified with the space of generalized theta functions on the moduli stack of quasi-parabolic$\mathscr {G}$-torsors on$\Sigma /\Gamma$when the level$c$is divisible by$|\Gamma |$(establishing a conjecture due to Pappas and Rapoport).

     
    more » « less