skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on October 12, 2024

Title: High-fidelity gates and mid-circuit erasure conversion in an atomic qubit
The development of scalable, high-fidelity qubits is a key challenge in quantum information science. Neutral atom qubits have progressed rapidly in recent years, demonstrating programmable processors1,2 and quantum simulators with scaling to hundreds of atoms3,4. Exploring new atomic species, such as alkaline earth atoms5,6,7, or combining multiple species8 can provide new paths to improving coherence, control and scalability. For example, for eventual application in quantum error correction, it is advantageous to realize qubits with structured error models, such as biased Pauli errors9 or conversion of errors into detectable erasures10. Here we demonstrate a new neutral atom qubit using the nuclear spin of a long-lived metastable state in 171Yb. The long coherence time and fast excitation to the Rydberg state allow one- and two-qubit gates with fidelities of 0.9990(1) and 0.980(1), respectively. Importantly, a large fraction of all gate errors result in decays out of the qubit subspace to the ground state. By performing fast, mid-circuit detection of these errors, we convert them into erasure errors; during detection, the induced error probability on qubits remaining in the computational space is less than 10−5. This work establishes metastable 171Yb as a promising platform for realizing fault-tolerant quantum computing.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Springer Nature
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Page Range / eLocation ID:
279 to 284
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The requirements for fault-tolerant quantum error correction can be simplified by leveraging structure in the noise of the underlying hardware. In this work, we identify a new type of structured noise motivated by neutral-atom qubits, biased erasure errors, which arises when qubit errors are dominated by detectable leakage from only one of the computational states of the qubit. We study the performance of this model using gate-level simulations of the XZZX surface code. Using the predicted erasure fraction and bias of metastable 171Yb qubits, we find a threshold of 8.2% for two-qubit gate errors, which is 1.9 times higher than the threshold for unbiased erasures and 7.5 times higher than the threshold for depolarizing errors. Surprisingly, the improved threshold is achieved without bias-preserving controlled-not gates and, instead, results from the lower noise entropy in this model. We also introduce an XZZX cluster state construction for measurement-based error correction, hybrid fusion, that is optimized for this noise model. By combining fusion operations and deterministic entangling gates, this construction preserves the intrinsic symmetry of the XZZX code, leading to a higher threshold of 10.3% and enabling the use of rectangular codes with fewer qubits. We discuss a potential physical implementation using a single plane of atoms and movable tweezers. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Suppressing errors is the central challenge for useful quantum computing1, requiring quantum error correction (QEC)2–6for large-scale processing. However, the overhead in the realization of error-corrected ‘logical’ qubits, in which information is encoded across many physical qubits for redundancy2–4, poses substantial challenges to large-scale logical quantum computing. Here we report the realization of a programmable quantum processor based on encoded logical qubits operating with up to 280 physical qubits. Using logical-level control and a zoned architecture in reconfigurable neutral-atom arrays7, our system combines high two-qubit gate fidelities8, arbitrary connectivity7,9, as well as fully programmable single-qubit rotations and mid-circuit readout10–15. Operating this logical processor with various types of encoding, we demonstrate improvement of a two-qubit logic gate by scaling surface-code6distance fromd = 3 tod = 7, preparation of colour-code qubits with break-even fidelities5, fault-tolerant creation of logical Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) states and feedforward entanglement teleportation, as well as operation of 40 colour-code qubits. Finally, using 3D [[8,3,2]] code blocks16,17, we realize computationally complex sampling circuits18with up to 48 logical qubits entangled with hypercube connectivity19with 228 logical two-qubit gates and 48 logical CCZ gates20. We find that this logical encoding substantially improves algorithmic performance with error detection, outperforming physical-qubit fidelities at both cross-entropy benchmarking and quantum simulations of fast scrambling21,22. These results herald the advent of early error-corrected quantum computation and chart a path towards large-scale logical processors.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Executing quantum algorithms on error-corrected logical qubits is a critical step for scalable quantum computing, but the requisite numbers of qubits and physical error rates are demanding for current experimental hardware. Recently, the development of error correcting codes tailored to particular physical noise models has helped relax these requirements. In this work, we propose a qubit encoding and gate protocol for171Yb neutral atom qubits that converts the dominant physical errors into erasures, that is, errors in known locations. The key idea is to encode qubits in a metastable electronic level, such that gate errors predominantly result in transitions to disjoint subspaces whose populations can be continuously monitored via fluorescence. We estimate that 98% of errors can be converted into erasures. We quantify the benefit of this approach via circuit-level simulations of the surface code, finding a threshold increase from 0.937% to 4.15%. We also observe a larger code distance near the threshold, leading to a faster decrease in the logical error rate for the same number of physical qubits, which is important for near-term implementations. Erasure conversion should benefit any error correcting code, and may also be applied to design new gates and encodings in other qubit platforms.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Minimizing and understanding errors is critical for quantum science, both in noisy intermediate scale quantum (NISQ) devices1and for the quest towards fault-tolerant quantum computation2,3. Rydberg arrays have emerged as a prominent platform in this context4with impressive system sizes5,6and proposals suggesting how error-correction thresholds could be significantly improved by detecting leakage errors with single-atom resolution7,8, a form of erasure error conversion9–12. However, two-qubit entanglement fidelities in Rydberg atom arrays13,14have lagged behind competitors15,16and this type of erasure conversion is yet to be realized for matter-based qubits in general. Here we demonstrate both erasure conversion and high-fidelity Bell state generation using a Rydberg quantum simulator5,6,17,18. When excising data with erasure errors observed via fast imaging of alkaline-earth atoms19–22, we achieve a Bell state fidelity of$$\ge 0.997{1}_{-13}^{+10}$$0.997113+10, which improves to$$\ge 0.998{5}_{-12}^{+7}$$0.998512+7when correcting for remaining state-preparation errors. We further apply erasure conversion in a quantum simulation experiment for quasi-adiabatic preparation of long-range order across a quantum phase transition, and reveal the otherwise hidden impact of these errors on the simulation outcome. Our work demonstrates the capability for Rydberg-based entanglement to reach fidelities in the 0.999 regime, with higher fidelities a question of technical improvements, and shows how erasure conversion can be utilized in NISQ devices. These techniques could be translated directly to quantum-error-correction codes with the addition of long-lived qubits7,22–24.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    The ability to perform entangling quantum operations with low error rates in a scalable fashion is a central element of useful quantum information processing1. Neutral-atom arrays have recently emerged as a promising quantum computing platform, featuring coherent control over hundreds of qubits2,3and any-to-any gate connectivity in a flexible, dynamically reconfigurable architecture4. The main outstanding challenge has been to reduce errors in entangling operations mediated through Rydberg interactions5. Here we report the realization of two-qubit entangling gates with 99.5% fidelity on up to 60 atoms in parallel, surpassing the surface-code threshold for error correction6,7. Our method uses fast, single-pulse gates based on optimal control8, atomic dark states to reduce scattering9and improvements to Rydberg excitation and atom cooling. We benchmark fidelity using several methods based on repeated gate applications10,11, characterize the physical error sources and outline future improvements. Finally, we generalize our method to design entangling gates involving a higher number of qubits, which we demonstrate by realizing low-error three-qubit gates12,13. By enabling high-fidelity operation in a scalable, highly connected system, these advances lay the groundwork for large-scale implementation of quantum algorithms14, error-corrected circuits7and digital simulations15.

    more » « less