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  1. Abstract

    Noncommuting conserved quantities have recently launched a subfield of quantum thermodynamics. In conventional thermodynamics, a system of interest and an environment exchange quantities—energy, particles, electric charge, etc.—that are globally conserved and are represented by Hermitian operators. These operators were implicitly assumed to commute with each other, until a few years ago. Freeing the operators to fail to commute has enabled many theoretical discoveries—about reference frames, entropy production, resource-theory models, etc. Little work has bridged these results from abstract theory to experimental reality. This paper provides a methodology for building this bridge systematically: we present a prescription for constructing Hamiltonians that conserve noncommuting quantities globally while transporting the quantities locally. The Hamiltonians can couple arbitrarily many subsystems together and can be integrable or nonintegrable. Our Hamiltonians may be realized physically with superconducting qudits, with ultracold atoms, and with trapped ions.

  2. Abstract Quantum many-body systems away from equilibrium host a rich variety of exotic phenomena that are forbidden by equilibrium thermodynamics. A prominent example is that of discrete time crystals 1–8 , in which time-translational symmetry is spontaneously broken in periodically driven systems. Pioneering experiments have observed signatures of time crystalline phases with trapped ions 9,10 , solid-state spin systems 11–15 , ultracold atoms 16,17 and superconducting qubits 18–20 . Here we report the observation of a distinct type of non-equilibrium state of matter, Floquet symmetry-protected topological phases, which are implemented through digital quantum simulation with an array of programmable superconducting qubits. We observe robust long-lived temporal correlations and subharmonic temporal response for the edge spins over up to 40 driving cycles using a circuit of depth exceeding 240 and acting on 26 qubits. We demonstrate that the subharmonic response is independent of the initial state, and experimentally map out a phase boundary between the Floquet symmetry-protected topological and thermal phases. Our results establish a versatile digital simulation approach to exploring exotic non-equilibrium phases of matter with current noisy intermediate-scale quantum processors 21 .
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 21, 2023
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  9. Despite rapid advances in quantum computing technologies, the qubit connectivity limitation remains to be a critical challenge. Both near-term NISQ quantum computers and relatively long-term scalable quantum architectures do not offer full connectivity. As a result, quantum circuits may not be directly executed on quantum hardware, and a quantum compiler needs to perform qubit routing to make the circuit compatible with the device layout. During the qubit routing step, the compiler inserts SWAP gates and performs circuit transformations. Given the connectivity topology of the target hardware, there are typically multiple qubit routing candidates. The state-of-the-art compilers use a cost function to evaluate the number of SWAP gates for different routes and then select the one with the minimum number of SWAP gates. After qubit routing, the quantum compiler performs gate optimizations upon the circuit with the newly inserted SWAP gates. In this paper, we observe that the aforementioned qubit routing is not optimal, and qubit routing should not be independent on subsequent gate optimizations. We find that with the consideration of gate optimizations, not all of the SWAP gates have the same basis-gate cost. These insights lead to the development of our qubit routing algorithm, NASSC (Not All Swaps havemore »the Same Cost). NASSC is the first algorithm that considers the subsequent optimizations during the routing step. Our optimization-aware qubit routing leads to better routing decisions and benefits subsequent optimizations. We also propose a new optimization-aware decomposition for the inserted SWAP gates. Our experiments show that the routing overhead compiled with our routing algorithm is reduced by up to 69.30% (21.30% on average) in the number of CNOT gates and up to 43.50% (7.61% on average) in the circuit depth compared with the state-of-the-art scheme, SABRE.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
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