skip to main content


This content will become publicly available on September 1, 2024

Title: Non-invasive bladder volume sensing via FMCW radar: Feasibility demonstration in simulated and ex-vivo bladder models
Award ID(s):
1937158
NSF-PAR ID:
10507209
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Science Direct
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Smart Health
Volume:
29
Issue:
C
ISSN:
2352-6483
Page Range / eLocation ID:
100417
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    The bladder, stomach, intestines, heart, and lungs all move dynamically to achieve their purpose. A long‐term implantable device that can attach onto an organ, sense its movement, and deliver current to modify the organ function would be useful in many therapeutic applications. The bladder, for example, can suffer from incomplete contractions that result in urinary retention with patients requiring catheterization. Those affected may benefit from a combination of a strain sensor and electrical stimulator to better control bladder emptying. The materials and design of such a device made from thin layer carbon nanotube (CNT) and Ecoflex 00–50 are described and demonstrate its function with in vivo feline bladders. During bench‐top characterization, the resistive and capacitive sensors exhibit stability throughout 5000 stretching cycles under physiology conditions. In vivo measurements with piezoresistive devices show a high correlation between sensor resistance and volume. Stimulation driven from platinum‐silicone composite electrodes successfully induce bladder contraction. A method for reliable connection and packaging of medical grade wire to the CNT device is also presented. This work is an important step toward the translation of low‐durometer elastomers, stretchable CNT percolation, and platinum‐silicone composite, which are ideal for large‐strain bioelectric applications to sense or modulate dynamic organ states.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Whether phenotypic evolution occurs gradually through time has prompted the search for intermediate forms between the ancestral and derived states of morphological features, especially when there appears to be a discontinuous origin. The gas bladder, a derived character of the Actinopteri, is a modification of lungs, which characterize the common ancestor of bony vertebrates. While gas bladders and lungs are similar in many ways, the key morphological difference between these organs is the direction of budding from the foregut during development; essentially, the gas bladder buds dorsally and the lungs bud ventrally from the foregut. Did the shift from ventral lungs to dorsal gas bladder transition through a lateral‐budding stage? To answer this question, the precise location of budding during gas bladder development in bowfin, representing the sister lineage to teleosts, has been debated. In the early 20th‐century, it was suggested that the bowfin gas bladder buds laterally from the right wall of the foregut. We used nano‐CT scanning to visualize the early development of the bowfin gas bladder to verify the historical studies of gas bladder developmental morphology and determine whether the direction of gas bladder budding in bowfin could be intermediate between ventrally budding lungs and dorsally budding gas bladders. We found that the bowfin gas bladder buds dorsally from the anterior foregut; however, during early development, the posterior gas bladder twists right. As development progresses, the posterior, right‐hand twist becomes shallower, and the gas bladder itself shifts toward a mid‐dorsal position. The budding site is definitively dorsal, despite the temporary lateral twist of the posterior gas bladder.

     
    more » « less
  3. Bladder cancer (BC) is frequent cancer affecting the urinary tract and is one of the most prevalent malignancies worldwide. No biomarkers that can be used for effective monitoring of therapeutic interventions for this cancer have been identified to date. This study investigated polar metabolite profiles in urine samples from 100 BC patients and 100 normal controls (NCs) using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and two methods of high- resolution nanoparticle-based laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). Five urine metabolites were identified and quantified using NMR spectroscopy to be potential indicators of bladder cancer. Twenty-five LDI-MS-detected compounds, predominantly peptides and lipids, distinguished urine samples from BC and NCs individuals. Level changes of three characteristic urine metabolites enabled BC tumor grades to be distinguished, and ten metabolites were reported to correlate with tumor stages. Receiver-Operating Characteristics analysis showed high predictive power for all three types of metabolomics data, with the area under the curve (AUC) values greater than 0.87. These findings suggest that metabolite markers identified in this study may be useful for the non-invasive detection and monitoring of bladder cancer stages and grades. 
    more » « less