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This content will become publicly available on September 1, 2024

Title: Non-invasive bladder volume sensing via FMCW radar: Feasibility demonstration in simulated and ex-vivo bladder models
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Publisher / Repository:
Science Direct
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Smart Health
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Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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    The bladder, stomach, intestines, heart, and lungs all move dynamically to achieve their purpose. A long‐term implantable device that can attach onto an organ, sense its movement, and deliver current to modify the organ function would be useful in many therapeutic applications. The bladder, for example, can suffer from incomplete contractions that result in urinary retention with patients requiring catheterization. Those affected may benefit from a combination of a strain sensor and electrical stimulator to better control bladder emptying. The materials and design of such a device made from thin layer carbon nanotube (CNT) and Ecoflex 00–50 are described and demonstrate its function with in vivo feline bladders. During bench‐top characterization, the resistive and capacitive sensors exhibit stability throughout 5000 stretching cycles under physiology conditions. In vivo measurements with piezoresistive devices show a high correlation between sensor resistance and volume. Stimulation driven from platinum‐silicone composite electrodes successfully induce bladder contraction. A method for reliable connection and packaging of medical grade wire to the CNT device is also presented. This work is an important step toward the translation of low‐durometer elastomers, stretchable CNT percolation, and platinum‐silicone composite, which are ideal for large‐strain bioelectric applications to sense or modulate dynamic organ states.

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