skip to main content


This content will become publicly available on March 1, 2025

Title: X-TED: Massive Parallelization of Tree Edit Distance

The tree edit distance (TED) has been found in a wide spectrum of applications in artificial intelligence, bioinformatics, and other areas, which serves as a metric to quantify the dissimilarity between two trees. As applications continue to scale in data size, with a growing demand for fast response time, TED has become even more increasingly data- and computing-intensive. Over the years, researchers have made dedicated efforts to improve sequential TED algorithms by reducing their high complexity. However, achieving efficient parallel TED computation in both algorithm and implementation is challenging due to its dynamic programming nature involving non-trivial issues of data dependency, runtime execution pattern changes, and optimal utilization of limited parallel resources.

Having comprehensively investigated the bottlenecks in the existing parallel TED algorithms, we develop a massive parallel computation framework for TED and its implementation on GPU, which is called X-TED. For a given TED computation, X-TED applies a fast preprocessing algorithm to identify dependency relationships among millions of dynamic programming tables. Subsequently, it adopts a dynamic parallel strategy to handle various processing stages, aiming to best utilize GPU cores and the limited device memory in an adaptive and automatic way. Our intensive experimental results demonstrate that X-TED surpasses all existing solutions, achieving up to 42x speedup over the state-of-the-art sequential AP-TED, and outperforming the existing multicore parallel MC-TED by an average speedup of 31x.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
2210753 2310510
NSF-PAR ID:
10514508
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Publisher / Repository:
The VLDB Endowment
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment
Volume:
17
Issue:
7
ISSN:
2150-8097
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1683 to 1696
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Voronoi diagram construction is a common and fundamental problem in computational geometry and spatial computing. Numerous sequential and parallel algorithms for Voronoi diagram construction exists in literature. This paper presents a multi-threaded approach where we augment an existing sequential implementation of Fortune‚Äôs planesweep algorithm with compiler directives. The novelty of our fine-grained parallel algorithm lies in exploiting the concurrency available at each event point encountered during the algorithm. On the Intel Xeon E5 CPU, our shared-memory parallelization with OpenMP achieves around 2x speedup compared to the sequential implementation using datasets containing 2k-128k sites. 
    more » « less
  2. Many graph problems can be solved using ordered parallel graph algorithms that achieve significant speedup over their unordered counterparts by reducing redundant work. This paper introduces a new priority-based extension to GraphIt, a domain-specific language for writing graph applications, to simplify writing high-performance parallel ordered graph algorithms. The extension enables vertices to be processed in a dynamic order while hiding low-level implementation details from the user. We extend the compiler with new program analyses, transformations, and code generation to produce fast implementations of ordered parallel graph algorithms. We also introduce bucket fusion, a new performance optimization that fuses together different rounds of ordered algorithms to reduce synchronization overhead, resulting in 1.2x--3x speedup over the fastest existing ordered algorithm implementations on road networks with large diameters. With the extension, GraphIt achieves up to 3x speedup on six ordered graph algorithms over state-of-the-art frameworks and hand-optimized implementations (Julienne, Galois, and GAPBS) that support ordered algorithms. 
    more » « less
  3. We present the first GPU-based parallel algorithm to efficiently update vertex coloring on large dynamic networks. For single GPU, we introduce the concept of loosely maintained vertex color update that reduces computation and memory requirements. For multiple GPUs, in distributed environments, we propose priority-based ordering of vertices to reduce the communication time. We prove the correctness of our algorithms and experimentally demonstrate that for graphs of over 16 million vertices and over 134 million edges on a single GPU, our dynamic algorithm is as much as 20x faster than state-of-the-art algorithm on static graphs. For larger graphs with over 130 million vertices and over 260 million edges, our distributed implementation with 8 GPUs produces updated color assignments within 160 milliseconds. In all cases, the proposed parallel algorithms produce comparable or fewer colors than state-of-the-art algorithms. 
    more » « less
  4. The Sparse Fast Fourier Transform (MIT-SFFT) is an algorithm to compute the discrete Fourier transform of a signal with a sublinear time complexity, i.e. algorithms with runtime complexity proportional to the sparsity level k, where k is the number of non-zero coefficients of the signal in the frequency domain. In this paper, we propose a highly scalable GPU-based parallel algorithm called GPU-SFFT for computing the SFFT of k-sparse signals. Our implementation of GPU-SFFT is based on parallel optimizations that leads to enormous speedups. These include carefully crafting parallel regions in the sequential MIT-SFFT code to exploit parallelism, and minimizing data movement between the CPU and the GPU. This allows us to exploit extreme parallelism for the CPU-GPU architectures and to maximize the number of concurrent threads executing instructions. Our experiments show that our designed CPU-GPU specific optimizations lead to enormous decrease in the run times needed for computing the SFFT. Further we show that GPU-SFFT is 38x times faster than the MIT-SFFT and 5x faster than cuFFT, the NVIDIA CUDA Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) library. The source code for GPU-SFFT is available at https://github.com/pcdslab. 
    more » « less
  5. We present Atos, a task-parallel GPU dynamic scheduling framework that is especially suited to dynamic irregular applications. Compared to the dominant Bulk Synchronous Parallel (BSP) frameworks, Atos exposes additional concurrency by supporting task-parallel formulations of applications with relaxed dependencies, achieving higher GPU utilization, which is particularly significant for problems with concurrency bottlenecks. Atos also offers implicit task-parallel load balancing in addition to data-parallel load balancing, providing users the flexibility to balance between them to achieve optimal performance. Finally, Atos allows users to adapt to different use cases by controlling the kernel strategy and task-parallel granularity. We demonstrate that each of these controls is important in practice. We evaluate and analyze the performance of Atos vs. BSP on three applications: breadth-first search, PageRank, and graph coloring. Atos implementations achieve geomean speedups of 3.44x, 2.1x, and 2.77x and peak speedups of 12.8x, 3.2x, and 9.08x across three case studies, compared to a state-of-the-art BSP GPU implementation. Beyond simply quantifying the speedup, we extensively analyze the reasons behind each speedup. This deeper understanding allows us to derive general guidelines for how to select the optimal Atos configuration for different applications. Finally, our analysis provides insights for future dynamic scheduling framework designs. 
    more » « less