For a system without spin–orbit coupling, the (i) nuclear plus electronic linear momentum and (ii) nuclear plus orbital electronic angular momentum are good quantum numbers. Thus, when a molecular system undergoes a nonadiabatic transition, there should be no change in the total linear or angular momentum. Now, the standard surface hopping algorithm ignores the electronic momentum and indirectly equates the momentum of the nuclear degrees of freedom to the total momentum. However, even with this simplification, the algorithm still does not conserve either the nuclear linear or the nuclear angular momenta. Here, we show that one way to address these failures is to dress the derivative couplings (i.e., the hopping directions) in two ways: (i) we disallow changes in the nuclear linear momentum by working in a translating basis (which is well known and leads to electron translation factors) and (ii) we disallow changes in the nuclear angular momentum by working in a basis that rotates around the center of mass [which is not wellknown and leads to a novel, rotationally removable component of the derivative coupling that we will call electron rotation factors below, cf. Eq. (96)]. The present findings should be helpful in the short term as far as interpreting surface hopping calculations for singlet systems (without spin) and then developing the new surface hopping algorithm in the long term for systems where one cannot ignore the electronic orbital and/or spin angular momentum.
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We demonstrate that, for systems with spin–orbit coupling and an odd number of electrons, the standard fewest switches surface hopping algorithm does not conserve the total linear or angular momentum. This lack of conservation arises not so much from the hopping direction (which is easily adjusted) but more generally from propagating adiabatic dynamics along surfaces that are not time reversible. We show that one solution to this problem is to run along eigenvalues of phasespace electronic Hamiltonians H(R, P) (i.e., electronic Hamiltonians that depend on both nuclear position and momentum) with an electronic–nuclear coupling Γ · P [see Eq. (25)], and we delineate the conditions that must be satisfied by the operator Γ. The present results should be extremely useful as far as developing new semiclassical approaches that can treat systems where the nuclear, electronic orbital, and electronic spin degrees of freedom altogether are all coupled together, hopefully including systems displaying the chiralinduced spin selectivity effect.
more » « less Award ID(s):
 2102402
 NSFPAR ID:
 10520185
 Publisher / Repository:
 scp
 Date Published:
 Journal Name:
 The Journal of Chemical Physics
 Volume:
 160
 Issue:
 2
 ISSN:
 00219606
 Format(s):
 Medium: X
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
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