Crossplatform observing systems are requisite to capturing the temporal and spatial dynamics of particles in the ocean. We present simultaneous observations of bulk optical properties, including the particulate beam attenuation (
The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is of fundamental interest in photonic quantum information, yet the ability to scale it to high dimensions depends heavily on the physical encoding, with practical recipes lacking in emerging platforms such as frequency bins. In this article, we show that
 Award ID(s):
 2034019
 NSFPAR ID:
 10531128
 Publisher / Repository:
 Optical Society of America
 Date Published:
 Journal Name:
 Optics Express
 Volume:
 30
 Issue:
 6
 ISSN:
 10944087; OPEXFF
 Format(s):
 Medium: X Size: Article No. 10126
 Size(s):
 Article No. 10126
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
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${\mathit{\text{c}}}_{\mathit{\text{p}}}$ ) and backscattering (${b}_{\text{bp}}$ ) coefficients, and particle size distributions collected in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Clear and coherent diel cycles are observed in all bulk and sizefractionated optical proxies for particle biomass. We show evidence linking diurnal increases in${\mathit{\text{c}}}_{\mathit{\text{p}}}$ and${\mathit{\text{b}}}_{\text{bp}}$ to daytime particle growth and division of cells, with particles$<<\#comment/>7\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}\text{\xb5<\#comment/>}\mathrm{m}$ driving the daily cycle of particle production and loss within the mixed layer. Flow cytometry data reveal the nitrogenfixing cyanobacteriumCrocosphaera ($\sim <\#comment/>4<\#comment/>7\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}\text{\xb5<\#comment/>}\mathrm{m}$ ) to be an important driver of${\mathit{\text{c}}}_{\phantom{\rule{negativethinmathspace}{0ex}}\mathit{\text{p}}}$ at the time of sampling, whereasProchlorococcus dynamics ($\sim <\#comment/>0.5\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}\text{\xb5<\#comment/>}\mathrm{m}$ ) were essential to reproducing temporal variability in${\mathit{\text{b}}}_{\text{bp}}$ . This study is a step towards improved characterization of the particle size range represented byin situ bulk optical properties and a better understanding of the mechanisms that drive variability in particle production in the oligotrophic open ocean. 
Proving the “expectationthreshold” conjecture of Kahn and Kalai [Combin. Probab. Comput. 16 (2007), pp. 495–502], we show that for any increasing property
$\mathcal {F}$ on a finite set$X$ ,\[$p_c(\mathcal {F})=O(q(\mathcal {F})\log \ell (\mathcal {F})),$\] where$p_c(\mathcal {F})$ and$q(\mathcal {F})$ are the threshold and “expectation threshold” of$\mathcal {F}$ , and$\ell (\mathcal {F})$ is the maximum of$2$ and the maximum size of a minimal member of$\mathcal {F}$ . 
Boundaries of WalkerWang models have been used to construct commuting projector models which realize chiral unitary modular tensor categories (UMTCs) as boundary excitations. Given a UMTC$\mathcal{A}$representing the Witt class of an anomaly, the article \cite{MR4640433} gave a commuting projector model associated to an$\mathcal{A}$enriched unitary fusion category$\mathcal{X}$on a 2D boundary of the 3D WalkerWang model associated to$\mathcal{A}$. That article claimed that the boundary excitations were given by the enriched center/Müger centralizer${Z}^{\mathcal{A}}(\mathcal{X})$of$\mathcal{A}$in$Z(\mathcal{X})$.In this article, we give a rigorous treatment of this 2D boundary model, and we verify this assertion using topological quantum field theory (TQFT) techniques, including skein modules and a certain semisimple algebra whose representation category describes boundary excitations. We also use TQFT techniques to show the 3D bulk point excitations of the WalkerWang bulk are given by the Müger center${Z}_{2}(\mathcal{A})$, and we construct bulktoboundary hopping operators${Z}_{2}(\mathcal{A})\to {Z}^{\mathcal{A}}(\mathcal{X})$reflecting how the UMTC of boundary excitations${Z}^{\mathcal{A}}(\mathcal{X})$is symmetricbraided enriched in${Z}_{2}(\mathcal{A})$.This article also includes a selfcontained comprehensive review of the LevinWen string net model from a unitary tensor category viewpoint, as opposed to the skeletal$6j$symbol viewpoint.

The use of multispectral geostationary satellites to study aquatic ecosystems improves the temporal frequency of observations and mitigates cloud obstruction, but no operational capability presently exists for the coastal and inland waters of the United States. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on the current iteration of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, termed the
$R$ Series (GOESR), however, provides subhourly imagery and the opportunity to overcome this deficit and to leverage a large repository of existing GOESR aquatic observations. The fulfillment of this opportunity is assessed herein using a spectrally simplified, twochannel aquatic algorithm consistent with ABI wave bands to estimate the diffuse attenuation coefficient for photosynthetically available radiation,${K}_{d}(\mathrm{P}\mathrm{A}\mathrm{R})$ . First, anin situ ABI dataset was synthesized using a globally representative dataset of above and inwater radiometric data products. Values of${K}_{d}(\mathrm{P}\mathrm{A}\mathrm{R})$ were estimated by fitting the ratio of the shortest and longest visible wave bands from thein situ ABI dataset to coincident,in situ ${K}_{d}(\mathrm{P}\mathrm{A}\mathrm{R})$ data products. The algorithm was evaluated based on an iterative crossvalidation analysis in which 80% of the dataset was randomly partitioned for fitting and the remaining 20% was used for validation. The iteration producing the median coefficient of determination (${R}^{2}$ ) value (0.88) resulted in a root mean square difference of$0.319\phantom{\rule{thinmathspace}{0ex}}{\mathrm{m}}^{<\#comment/>1}$ , or 8.5% of the range in the validation dataset. Second, coincident midday images of central and southern California from ABI and from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were compared using Google Earth Engine (GEE). GEE default ABI reflectance values were adjusted based on a near infrared signal. Matchups between the ABI and MODIS imagery indicated similar spatial variability (${R}^{2}=0.60$ ) between ABI adjusted bluetored reflectance ratio values and MODIS default diffuse attenuation coefficient for spectral downward irradiance at 490 nm,${K}_{d}(490)$ , values. This work demonstrates that if an operational capability to provide ABI aquatic data products was realized, the spectral configuration of ABI would potentially support a subhourly, visible aquatic data product that is applicable to watermass tracing and physical oceanography research. 
The midIR spectroscopic properties of
${\mathrm{E}\mathrm{r}}^{3+}$ doped lowphonon${\mathrm{C}\mathrm{s}\mathrm{C}\mathrm{d}\mathrm{C}\mathrm{l}}_{3}$ and${\mathrm{C}\mathrm{s}\mathrm{P}\mathrm{b}\mathrm{C}\mathrm{l}}_{3}$ crystals grown by the Bridgman technique have been investigated. Using optical excitations at$\sim <\#comment/>800\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{m}$ and$\sim <\#comment/>660\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{m}$ , both crystals exhibited IR emissions at$\sim <\#comment/>1.55$ ,$\sim <\#comment/>2.75$ ,$\sim <\#comment/>3.5$ , and$\sim <\#comment/>4.5\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}\text{\xb5<\#comment/>}\mathrm{m}$ at room temperature. The midIR emission at 4.5 µm, originating from the${}^{4}{\mathrm{I}}_{9/2}\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}\to <\#comment/>{\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}}^{4}{\mathrm{I}}_{11/2}$ transition, showed a long emission lifetime of$\sim <\#comment/>11.6\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}\mathrm{m}\mathrm{s}$ for${\mathrm{E}\mathrm{r}}^{3+}$ doped${\mathrm{C}\mathrm{s}\mathrm{C}\mathrm{d}\mathrm{C}\mathrm{l}}_{3}$ , whereas${\mathrm{E}\mathrm{r}}^{3+}$ doped${\mathrm{C}\mathrm{s}\mathrm{P}\mathrm{b}\mathrm{C}\mathrm{l}}_{3}$ exhibited a shorter lifetime of$\sim <\#comment/>1.8\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}\mathrm{m}\mathrm{s}$ . The measured emission lifetimes of the${}^{4}{\mathrm{I}}_{9/2}$ state were nearly independent of the temperature, indicating a negligibly small nonradiative decay rate through multiphonon relaxation, as predicted by the energygap law for lowmaximumphonon energy hosts. The room temperature stimulated emission cross sections for the${}^{4}{\mathrm{I}}_{9/2}\to <\#comment/>{}^{4}{\mathrm{I}}_{11/2}$ transition in${\mathrm{E}\mathrm{r}}^{3+}$ doped${\mathrm{C}\mathrm{s}\mathrm{C}\mathrm{d}\mathrm{C}\mathrm{l}}_{3}$ and${\mathrm{C}\mathrm{s}\mathrm{P}\mathrm{b}\mathrm{C}\mathrm{l}}_{3}$ were determined to be$\sim <\#comment/>0.14\times <\#comment/>{10}^{<\#comment/>20}\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}{\mathrm{c}\mathrm{m}}^{2}$ and$\sim <\#comment/>0.41\times <\#comment/>{10}^{<\#comment/>20}\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}{\mathrm{c}\mathrm{m}}^{2}$ , respectively. The results of Judd–Ofelt analysis are presented and discussed.