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  1. This dataset includes the concentrations and conditional stability constants of iron-binding organic ligands in samples collected during an extension study of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) project and measured by competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-AdCSV). These samples originated from a spring melt field campaign conducted in Utqiaġvik, Alaska. This campaign was designed when the MOSAiC expedition could no longer accommodate spring melt trace metal work. The melt season was a key period of our effort during MOSAiC and necessary for addressing our proposed hypotheses. Using facilities in Utqiaġvik hosted by Ukpeaǵvik Iñupiat Corporation (UIC), we studied sea ice processes during the spring melt cycle from April – June of 2021. Four UAF Scientists participated in the field campaign. During that time, sea ice, snow and water samples were obtained from homogenous, flat, landfast ice at high (2-3 times a week) temporal resolution. 
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  2. Using facilities in Utqiaġvik hosted by Ukpeaǵvik Iñupiat Corporation (UIC), we studied sea ice processes during the spring melt cycle from April – June of 2021. During that time, sea ice, snow and water samples were obtained from homogenous, flat, landfast ice. The dataset produced from this campaign is also unique in that its temporal coverage of the spring melt is higher resolution than any other biogeochemical sampling conducted in this region previously (2-3 times a week for all parameters sampled). The datasets herein include sea ice macronutrients, salinity, temperature, and density; sea ice micronutrients; and bottom ice chlorophyll. 
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  3. Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates to potentially harmful concentrations in Arctic and Subarctic marine predators and those that consume them. Monitoring and modeling MeHg bioaccumulation and biogeochemical cycling in the ocean requires an understanding of the mechanisms behind net mercury (Hg) methylation. The key functional gene pair for Hg methylation,hgcAB, is widely distributed throughout ocean basins and spans multiple microbial phyla. While multiple microbially mediated anaerobic pathways for Hg methylation in the ocean are known, the majority ofhgcAhomologs have been found in oxic subsurface waters, in contrast to other ecosystems. In particular, microaerophilicNitrospina, a genera of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria containing ahgcA-like sequence, have been proposed as a potentially important Hg methylator in the upper ocean. The objective of this work was therefore to examine the potential of nitrifiers as Hg methylators and quantify total Hg and MeHg across three Arctic and Subarctic seas (the Gulf of Alaska, the Bering Sea and the Chukchi Sea) in regions whereNitrospinaare likely present. In Spring 2021, samples for Hg analysis were obtained with a trace metal clean rosette across these seas. Mercury methylation rates were quantified in concert with nitrification rates using onboard incubation experiments with additions of stable isotope-labeled Hg and NH4+. A significant correlation between Hg methylation and nitrification was observed across all sites (R2= 0.34,p< 0.05), with the strongest correlation in the Chukchi Sea (R2= 0.99,p< 0.001).Nitrospina-specifichgcA-like genes were detected at all sites. This study, linking Hg methylation and nitrification in oxic seawater, furthers understanding of MeHg cycling in these high latitude waters, and the ocean in general. Furthermore, these studies inform predictions of how climate and human interactions could influence MeHg concentrations across the Arctic in the future.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 25, 2024
  4. First-year sea-ice thickness, draft, salinity, temperature, and density were measured during near-weekly surveys at the main first-year ice coring site (MCS-FYI) during the MOSAiC expedition (legs 1 to 4). The ice cores were extracted either with a 9-cm (Mark II) or 7.25-cm (Mark III) internal diameter ice corers (Kovacs Enterprise, US). This data set includes data from 23 coring site visits and were performed from 28 October 2019 to 29 July 2020 at coring locations within 130 m to each other in the MOSAiC Central Observatory. During each coring event, ice temperature was measured in situ from a separate temperature core, using Testo 720 thermometers in drill holes with a length of half-core-diameter at 5-cm vertical resolution. Ice bulk practical salinity was measured from melted core sections at 5-cm resolution using a YSI 30 conductivity meter. Ice density was measured using the hydrostatic weighing method (Pustogvar and Kulyakhtin, 2016) from a density core in the freezer laboratory onboard Polarstern at the temperature of –15°C. Relative volumes of brine and gas were estimated from ice salinity, temperature and density using Cox and Weeks (1983) for cold ice and Leppäranta and Manninen (1988) for ice warmer than –2°C.The data contains the event label (1), time (2), and global coordinates (3,4) of each coring measurement and sample IDs (13, 15). Each salinity core has its manually measured ice thickness (5), ice draft (6), core length (7), and mean snow height (22). Each core section has the total length of its top (8) and bottom (9) measured in situ, as well estimated depth of section top (10), bottom (11), and middle (12). The depth estimates assume that the total length of all core sections is equal to the measured ice thickness. Each core section has the value of its practical salinity (14), isotopic values (16, 17, 18) (Meyer et al., 2000), as well as sea ice temperature (19) and ice density (20) interpolated to the depth of salinity measurements. The global coordinates of coring sites were measured directly. When it was not possible, coordinates of the nearby temperature buoy 2019T66 were used. Ice mass balance buoy 2019T66 installation is described in doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.938134. Brine volume (21) fraction estimates are presented only for fraction values from 0 to 30%. Each core section also has comments (23) describing if the sample is from a false bottom, from rafted ice or has any other special characteristics.Macronutrients from the salinity core, and more isotope data will be published in a subsequent version of this data set. 
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  5. Abstract

    Atmospheric dust is an important source of the micronutrient Fe to the oceans. Although relatively insoluble mineral Fe is assumed to be the most important component of dust, a relatively small yet highly soluble anthropogenic component may also be significant. However, quantifying the importance of anthropogenic Fe to the global oceans requires a tracer which can be used to identify and constrain anthropogenic aerosols in situ. Here, we present Fe isotope (δ56Fe) data from North Atlantic aerosol samples from the GEOTRACES GA03 section. While soluble aerosol samples collected near the Sahara have near-crustal δ56Fe, soluble aerosols from near North America and Europe instead have remarkably fractionated δ56Fe values (as light as −1.6‰). Here, we use these observations to fingerprint anthropogenic combustion sources, and to refine aerosol deposition modeling. We show that soluble anthropogenic aerosol Fe flux to the global surface oceans is highly likely to be underestimated, even in the dusty North Atlantic.

     
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  6. Abstract

    The surface waters of the Arctic Ocean include an important inventory of freshwater from rivers, sea ice melt, and glacial meltwaters. While some freshwaters are mixed directly into the surface ocean, cryospheric reservoirs, such as snow, sea ice, and melt ponds act as incubators for trace metals, as well as potential sources to the surface ocean upon melting. The availability and reactivity of these metals depends on their speciation, which may vary across each pool or undergo transformation upon mixing. We present here baseline measurements of colloidal (∼0.003–0.200 μm) iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn) in snow, sea ice, melt ponds, and the underlying seawater. We consider both the total concentration of colloidal metals ([cMe]) in each cryospheric reservoir and the contribution of cMe to the overall dissolved metal phase (%cMe). Notably, snow contained higher (cMe) as well as higher %cMe relative to seawater for metals such as Fe and Zn across most stations. Stations close to the North Pole had relatively high aerosol deposition, imparting high (cFe) and (cZn), as well as high %cFe, %cZn, %cMn, and %cCd (>80%). In contrast, surface seawater concentrations of Cd, Cu, Mn, and Ni were dominated by the soluble phase (<0.003 μm), suggesting little impact of cMe from the melting cryosphere, or rapid aggregation/disaggregation dynamics within surface waters leading to the loss of cMe. This has important implications for how trace metal biogeochemistry speciation and thus fluxes may change in a future ice‐free Arctic Ocean.

     
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