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  1. Over the past few years, the synergic usage of unmanned aerial vehicles (later drones) and Internet of Things (IoT) has successfully transformed into the Internet of Drones (IoD) paradigm, where the data of interest is gathered and delivered to the Zone Service Provider (ZSP) by drones for substantial additional analysis. Considering the sensitivity of collected information and the impact of information disclosure, information privacy and security issues should be resolved properly so that the maximum potential of IoD can be realized in the increasingly complex cyber threat environment. Ideally, an authentication and key agreement protocol can be adopted to establish secure communications between drones and the ZSP in an insecure environment. Nevertheless, a large group of drones authenticating with the ZSP simultaneously will lead to a severe authentication signaling congestion, which inevitably degrades the quality of service (QoS) of IoD systems. To properly address the above-mentioned issues, a lightweight group authentication protocol, called liteGAP, is proposed in this paper. liteGAP can achieve the authenticated key establishment between a group of drones and the ZSP concurrently in the IoD environment using lightweight operations such as hash function, bitwise XOR, and physical unclonable function (PUF). We verify liteGAP using AVISPA (a tool for the automatic verification of security protocols) and conduct formal and informal security analysis, proving that liteGAP meets all pre-defined security requirements and withstand various potential cyber attacks. Moreover, we develop an experimental framework and conduct extensive experiments on liteGAP and two benchmark schemes (e.g., GASE and rampIoD). Experimental findings show that liteGAP outperforms its counterparts in terms of computational cost as well as communication overhead. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2025
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  5. In this work, we investigate the device-to-device variations in the remanent polarization of metal–ferroelectric–insulator–metal stacks based on ferroelectric hafnium–zirconium–oxide (HZO). Our study employs a 3D dynamic multi-grain phase-field model to consider the effects of the polycrystalline nature of HZO in conjunction with the multi-domain polarization switching. We explore the dependence of variations on various design factors, such as the ferroelectric thickness and voltage stimuli (set voltage, pulse amplitude, and width), and correlate the trends to the underlying polarization switching mechanisms. Our analysis reveals a non-monotonic dependence of variations on the set voltage due to the coupled effect of the underlying polycrystalline structure variations and the voltage dependence of polarization switching mechanisms. We further report that collapsing of oppositely polarized domains at higher set voltages can lead to an increase in variations, while ferroelectric thickness scaling lowers the overall device-to-device variations. Considering the dynamics of polarization switching, we highlight the key role of voltage and temporal dependence of domain nucleation in dictating the trends in variations. Finally, we show that using a lower amplitude pulse for longer duration to reach a target mean polarization state results in lower variations compared to using a higher amplitude pulse for shorter duration.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 28, 2024
  6. Current Deep Network (DN) visualization and inter-pretability methods rely heavily on data space visualizations such as scoring which dimensions of the data are responsible for their associated prediction or generating new data features or samples that best match a given DN unit or representation. In this paper, we go one step further by developing the first provably exact method for computing the geometry of a DN's mapping - including its decision boundary - over a specified region of the data space. By lever-aging the theory of Continuous Piece- Wise Linear (CPWL) spline DNs, SplineCam exactly computes a DN's geometry without resorting to approximations such as sampling or architecture simplification. SplineCam applies to any DN architecture based on CPWL activation nonlinearities, including (leaky) ReLU, absolute value, maxout, and max-pooling and can also be applied to regression DNs such as implicit neural representations. Beyond decision boundary visualization and characterization, SplineCam enables one to compare architectures, measure generalizability, and sample from the decision boundary on or off the data manifold. Project website: 
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  7. We present Polarity Sampling, a theoretically justified plug-and-play method for controlling the generation quality and diversity of any pre-trained deep generative network (DGN). Leveraging the fact that DGNs are, or can be approximated by, continuous piecewise affine splines, we derive the analytical DGN output space distribution as a function of the product of the DGN's Jacobian singular values raised to a power rho. We dub rho the polarity parameter and prove that rho focuses the DGN sampling on the modes (rho< 0) or anti-modes (rho> 0) of the DGN output space probability distribution. We demonstrate that nonzero polarity values achieve a better precision-recall (quality-diversity) Pareto frontier than standard methods, such as truncation, for a number of state-of-the-art DGNs. We also present quantitative and qualitative results on the improvement of overall generation quality (eg, in terms of the Frechet Inception Distance) for a number of state-of-the-art DGNs, including StyleGAN3, BigGAN-deep, NVAE, for different conditional and unconditional image generation tasks. In particular, Polarity Sampling redefines the state-of-the-art for StyleGAN2 on the FFHQ Dataset to FID 2.57, StyleGAN2 on the LSUN Car Dataset to FID 2.27 and StyleGAN3 on the AFHQv2 Dataset to FID 3.95. Colab Demo: bit. ly/polarity-samp 
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