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Creators/Authors contains: "Al Qubaisi, Kenaish"

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  1. We report on the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of photonic crystal (PhC) nanobeam cavities with the smallest footprint, largest intrinsic quality factor, and smallest mode volume to be demonstrated to date in a monolithic CMOS platform. Two types of cavities were designed, with opposite spatial mode symmetries. The opposite mode symmetry, combined with evanescent coupling, allows the nanobeam cavities to be used in reflectionless topologies, desirable in complex photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The devices were implemented and fabricated in a 45 nm monolithic electronics–photonics CMOS platform optimized for silicon photonics (GlobalFoundries 45CLO) and do not require any post-processing. Quality factors exceeding 100 000 were measured for both devices, the highest, to the best of our knowledge, among fully cladded PhC nanobeam cavities in any silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. Additionally, the ability of the cavities to confine light into small mode volumes, of the order of (λ/n)3, was confirmed experimentally using near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM). These types of cavities are an important step toward realizing ultra-low energy active devices required for the next generation of integrated optical links beyond the current microring resonator-based links and other CMOS PICs.

     
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  2. We demonstrate a scheme for microring resonators to operate as standing-wave resonators while eliminating reflections and maintaining traveling-wave-resonator-like through-port response, potentially enabling interdigitated p-n junction microring modulators to achieve higher performance than other junction geometries. 
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  3. We demonstrate a high Q, compact photonic crystal nanobeam cavity in the new 45nm GlobalFoundries 45CLO monolithic electronics-photonics platform optimized for silicon photonics – with an intrinsic Q of 134,000, FSR of 24.17 nm, and a theoretical Q/V of 2.2E-5 (λ/n)^(-3). 
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  4. We demonstrate device field characterization using NSOM collection and interaction measurement modes via the backside buried-oxide of large scale photonic circuits fabricated in monolithic electronics-photonics CMOS platforms (here a microdisk resonator) post-processed using flip-chip substrate-removal. 
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  5. Grating coupler devices provide efficient, foundry-compatible vertical fiber-to-chip coupling solutions in integrated photonic platforms. However, standard grating coupler designs are highly polarization sensitive, which hinders their adoption. We present a new, to the best of our knowledge, type of 1D polarization-insensitive grating coupler (PIGC) that is based on a zero-birefringence subwavelength “corelet” waveguide. We demonstrate a PIGC for coupling in the telecommunications O-band in a 45-nm-node monolithic silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS electronic-photonic platform, with measured insertion losses of 6.7 and 6.1 dB to transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations, respectively, and a ±1-dB polarization dependent loss bandwidth of 73 nm.

     
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  6. Optical phased arrays (OPAs) which beam-steer in two dimensions (2D) are currently limited to grating row spacings well above a half wavelength. This gives rise to grating lobes along one axis which limit the field of view (FOV), introduce return signal ambiguity, and reduce the optical efficiency in lidar applications. We demonstrate a Vernier transceiver scheme which uses paired transmit and receive phased arrays with different row periodicities, leading to mismatched grating lobe angular spacings and only a single aligned pair of transmit and receive lobes. This permits a return signal from a target in the desired lobe to be efficiently coupled back into the receive OPA while back-scatter from the other grating lobes is rejected, removing the ambiguity. Our proposal goes beyond previously considered Vernier schemes in other domains like RF and sound, to enable adynamic Vernierwhere all beam directions are simultaneously Vernier aligned, and allow ultra-fast scanning, or multi-beam, operation with Vernier lobe suppression. We analyze two variants of grating lobe suppressing beam-steering configurations, one of which eliminates the FOV limitation, and find the conditions for optimal lobe suppression. We present the first, to the best of our knowledge, experimental demonstration of an OPA Vernier transceiver, including grating lobe suppression of 6.4 dB and beam steering across 5.5°. The demonstration is based on a pair of 2D-wavelength-steered serpentine OPAs. These results address the pervasive issue of grating lobes in integrated photonic lidar schemes, opening the way to larger FOVs and reduced complexity 2D beam-steering designs.

     
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  7. null (Ed.)
    We report the first photonic crystal microcavity modulator realized in a foundry CMOS photonics platform. Bandwidth of 2.8 GHz and 5 Gbps data rate demonstrated utilizing an interdigitated p-n junction in a WDM compatible structure. 
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  8. null (Ed.)
    We report on microring modulators in the new 45CLO photonics-optimized 45 nm electronic-photonic CMOS platform. Interdigitated disk and vertical-junction rib microring de- signs are demonstrated, with 20 GHz bandwidth at 25 Gbps data rate. 
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  9. We propose a novel photonic circuit element configuration that emulates the through-port response of a bus coupled traveling-wave resonator using two standing-wave resonant cavities. In this “reflectionless resonator unit”, the two constituent cavities, here photonic crystal (PhC) nanobeams, exhibit opposite mode symmetries and may otherwise belong to a single design family. They are coupled evanescently to the bus waveguide without mutual coupling. We show theoretically, and verify using FDTD simulations, that reflection is eliminated when the two cavities are wavelength aligned. This occurs due to symmetry-induced destructive interference at the bus coupling region in the proposed photonic circuit topology. The transmission is equivalent to that of a bus-coupled traveling-wave (e.g. microring) resonator for all coupling conditions. We experimentally demonstrate an implementation fabricated in a new 45 nm silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (SOI CMOS) electronic-photonic process. Both PhC nanobeam cavities have a full-width half-maximum (FWHM) mode length of 4.28μm and measured intrinsic Q’s in excess of 200,000. When the resonances are tuned to degeneracy and coalesce, transmission dips of the over-coupled PhC nanobeam cavities of −16 dB and −17 dB nearly disappear showing a remaining single dip of −4.2 dB, while reflection peaks are simultaneously reduced by 10 dB, demonstrating the quasi-traveling-wave behavior. This photonic circuit topology paves the way for realizing low-energy active devices such as modulators and detectors that can be cascaded to form wavelength-division multiplexed links with smaller power consumption and footprint than traveling wave, ring resonator based implementations.

     
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  10. null (Ed.)
    We emulate the reflectionless response of a traveling-wave resonator using two bus-coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities with respective symmetric and antisymmetric modes. The scheme may enable new active device platforms beyond ring resonators. 
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