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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  3. Martelli, Pier Luigi (Ed.)
    Abstract Motivation Reconstruction of genome-scale networks from gene expression data is an actively studied problem. A wide range of methods that differ between the types of interactions they uncover with varying trade-offs between sensitivity and specificity have been proposed. To leverage benefits of multiple such methods, ensemble network methods that combine predictions from resulting networks have been developed, promising results better than or as good as the individual networks. Perhaps owing to the difficulty in obtaining accurate training examples, these ensemble methods hitherto are unsupervised. Results In this article, we introduce EnGRaiN, the first supervised ensemble learning method to constructmore »gene networks. The supervision for training is provided by small training datasets of true edge connections (positives) and edges known to be absent (negatives) among gene pairs. We demonstrate the effectiveness of EnGRaiN using simulated datasets as well as a curated collection of Arabidopsis thaliana datasets we created from microarray datasets available from public repositories. EnGRaiN shows better results not only in terms of receiver operating characteristic and PR characteristics for both real and simulated datasets compared with unsupervised methods for ensemble network construction, but also generates networks that can be mined for elucidating complex biological interactions. Availability and implementation EnGRaiN software and the datasets used in the study are publicly available at the github repository: Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 9, 2022
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  5. null (Ed.)
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  6. Abstract Motivation Variation graph representations are projected to either replace or supplement conventional single genome references due to their ability to capture population genetic diversity and reduce reference bias. Vast catalogues of genetic variants for many species now exist, and it is natural to ask which among these are crucial to circumvent reference bias during read mapping. Results In this work, we propose a novel mathematical framework for variant selection, by casting it in terms of minimizing variation graph size subject to preserving paths of length α with at most δ differences. This framework leads to a rich set ofmore »problems based on the types of variants [e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), indels or structural variants (SVs)], and whether the goal is to minimize the number of positions at which variants are listed or to minimize the total number of variants listed. We classify the computational complexity of these problems and provide efficient algorithms along with their software implementation when feasible. We empirically evaluate the magnitude of graph reduction achieved in human chromosome variation graphs using multiple α and δ parameter values corresponding to short and long-read resequencing characteristics. When our algorithm is run with parameter settings amenable to long-read mapping (α = 10 kbp, δ = 1000), 99.99% SNPs and 73% SVs can be safely excluded from human chromosome 1 variation graph. The graph size reduction can benefit downstream pan-genome analysis. Availability and implementation Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.« less
  7. Abstract Motivation Oxford Nanopore Technologies sequencing devices support adaptive sequencing, in which undesired reads can be ejected from a pore in real time. This feature allows targeted sequencing aided by computational methods for mapping partial reads, rather than complex library preparation protocols. However, existing mapping methods either require a computationally expensive base-calling procedure before using aligners to map partial reads or work well only on small genomes. Results In this work, we present a new streaming method that can map nanopore raw signals for real-time selective sequencing. Rather than converting read signals to bases, we propose to convert reference genomesmore »to signals and fully operate in the signal space. Our method features a new way to index reference genomes using k-d trees, a novel seed selection strategy and a seed chaining algorithm tailored toward the current signal characteristics. We implemented the method as a tool Sigmap. Then we evaluated it on both simulated and real data and compared it to the state-of-the-art nanopore raw signal mapper Uncalled. Our results show that Sigmap yields comparable performance on mapping yeast simulated raw signals, and better mapping accuracy on mapping yeast real raw signals with a 4.4× speedup. Moreover, our method performed well on mapping raw signals to genomes of size >100 Mbp and correctly mapped 11.49% more real raw signals of green algae, which leads to a significantly higher F1-score (0.9354 versus 0.8660). Availability and implementation Sigmap code is accessible at Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.« less
  8. Abstract Background Third-generation single molecule sequencing technologies can sequence long reads, which is advancing the frontiers of genomics research. However, their high error rates prohibit accurate and efficient downstream analysis. This difficulty has motivated the development of many long read error correction tools, which tackle this problem through sampling redundancy and/or leveraging accurate short reads of the same biological samples. Existing studies to asses these tools use simulated data sets, and are not sufficiently comprehensive in the range of software covered or diversity of evaluation measures used. Results In this paper, we present a categorization and review of long readmore »error correction methods, and provide a comprehensive evaluation of the corresponding long read error correction tools. Leveraging recent real sequencing data, we establish benchmark data sets and set up evaluation criteria for a comparative assessment which includes quality of error correction as well as run-time and memory usage. We study how trimming and long read sequencing depth affect error correction in terms of length distribution and genome coverage post-correction, and the impact of error correction performance on an important application of long reads, genome assembly. We provide guidelines for practitioners for choosing among the available error correction tools and identify directions for future research. Conclusions Despite the high error rate of long reads, the state-of-the-art correction tools can achieve high correction quality. When short reads are available, the best hybrid methods outperform non-hybrid methods in terms of correction quality and computing resource usage. When choosing tools for use, practitioners are suggested to be careful with a few correction tools that discard reads, and check the effect of error correction tools on downstream analysis. Our evaluation code is available as open-source at .« less
  9. Abstract Background Alignment-free methods for sequence comparisons have become popular in many bioinformatics applications, specifically in the estimation of sequence similarity measures to construct phylogenetic trees. Recently, the average common substring measure, ACS , and its k -mismatch counterpart, ACS k , have been shown to produce results as effective as multiple-sequence alignment based methods for reconstruction of phylogeny trees. Since computing ACS k takes O ( n log k n ) time and hence impractical for large datasets, multiple heuristics that can approximate ACS k have been introduced. Results In this paper, we present a novel linear-time heuristic tomore »approximate ACS k , which is faster than computing the exact ACS k while being closer to the exact ACS k values compared to previously published linear-time greedy heuristics. Using four real datasets, containing both DNA and protein sequences, we evaluate our algorithm in terms of accuracy, runtime and demonstrate its applicability for phylogeny reconstruction. Our algorithm provides better accuracy than previously published heuristic methods, while being comparable in its applications to phylogeny reconstruction. Conclusions Our method produces a better approximation for ACS k and is applicable for the alignment-free comparison of biological sequences at highly competitive speed. The algorithm is implemented in Rust programming language and the source code is available at .« less