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Creators/Authors contains: "Andersen, Bogi"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  4. Abstract The interfollicular epidermis (IFE) forms a water-tight barrier that is often disrupted in inflammatory skin diseases. During homeostasis, the IFE is replenished by stem cells in the basal layer that differentiate as they migrate toward the skin surface. Conventionally, IFE differentiation is thought to be stepwise as reflected in sharp boundaries between its basal, spinous, granular and cornified layers. The transcription factor GRHL3 regulates IFE differentiation by transcriptionally activating terminal differentiation genes. Here we use single cell RNA-seq to show that murine IFE differentiation is best described as a single step gradualistic process with a large number of transition cells between the basal and spinous layer. RNA-velocity analysis identifies a commitment point that separates the plastic basal and transition cell state from unidirectionally differentiating cells. We also show that in addition to promoting IFE terminal differentiation, GRHL3 is essential for suppressing epidermal stem cell expansion and the emergence of an abnormal stem cell state by suppressing Wnt signaling in stem cells.
  5. The circadian clock coordinates a variety of immune responses with signals from the external environment to promote survival. We investigated the potential reciprocal relationship between the circadian clock and skin inflammation. We treated mice topically with the Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist imiquimod (IMQ) to activate IFN-sensitive gene (ISG) pathways and induce psoriasiform inflammation. IMQ transiently altered core clock gene expression, an effect mirrored in human patient psoriatic lesions. In mouse skin 1 d after IMQ treatment, ISGs, including the key ISG transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 7 ( Irf7), were more highly induced after treatment during the day than the night. Nuclear localization of phosphorylated-IRF7 was most prominently time-of-day dependent in epidermal leukocytes, suggesting that these cell types play an important role in the diurnal ISG response to IMQ. Mice lacking Bmal1 systemically had exacerbated and arrhythmic ISG /Irf7 expression after IMQ. Furthermore, daytime-restricted feeding, which affects the phase of the skin circadian clock, reverses the diurnal rhythm of IMQ-induced ISG expression in the skin. These results suggest a role for the circadian clock, driven by BMAL1, as a negative regulator of the ISG response, and highlight the finding that feeding time can modulate the skin immune response. Sincemore »the IFN response is essential for the antiviral and antitumor effects of TLR activation, these findings are consistent with the time-of-day–dependent variability in the ability to fight microbial pathogens and tumor initiation and offer support for the use of chronotherapy for their treatment.« less