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    Hydrogen-rich Type II supernovae (SNe II) are the most frequently observed class of core-collapse SNe (CCSNe). However, most studies that analyse large samples of SNe II lack events with absolute peak magnitudes brighter than −18.5 mag at rest-frame optical wavelengths. Thanks to modern surveys, the detected number of such luminous SNe II (LSNe II) is growing. There exist several mechanisms that could produce luminous SNe II. The most popular propose either the presence of a central engine (a magnetar gradually spinning down or a black hole accreting fallback material) or the interaction of supernova ejecta with circumstellar material (CSM) that turns kinetic energy into radiation energy. In this work, we study the light curves and spectral series of a small sample of six LSNe II that show peculiarities in their H α profile, to attempt to understand the underlying powering mechanism. We favour an interaction scenario with CSM that is not dense enough to be optically thick to electron scattering on large scales – thus, no narrow emission lines are observed. This conclusion is based on the observed light curve (higher luminosity, fast decline, blue colours) and spectral features (lack of persistent narrow lines, broad H α emission, lack of H α absorption, weak, or non-existent metal lines) together with comparison to other luminous events available in the literature. We add to the growing evidence that transients powered by ejecta–CSM interaction do not necessarily display persistent narrow emission lines.

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    We present extensive ultraviolet (UV) and optical photometric and optical spectroscopic follow-up of supernova (SN) 2021gno by the ‘Precision Observations of Infant Supernova Explosions’ (POISE) project, starting less than 2 d after the explosion. Given its intermediate luminosity, fast photometric evolution, and quick transition to the nebular phase with spectra dominated by [Ca ii] lines, SN 2021gno belongs to the small family of Calcium-rich transients. Moreover, it shows double-peaked light curves, a phenomenon shared with only four other Calcium-rich events. The projected distance from the centre of the host galaxy is not as large as other objects in this family. The initial optical light-curve peaks coincide with a very quick decline of the UV flux, indicating a fast initial cooling phase. Through hydrodynamical modelling of the bolometric light curve and line velocity evolution, we found that the observations are compatible with the explosion of a highly stripped massive star with an ejecta mass of $0.8\, M_\odot$ and a 56Ni mass of 0.024 M⊙. The initial cooling phase (first light-curve peak) is explained by the presence of an extended circumstellar material comprising ∼$10^{-2}\, {\rm M}_{\odot }$ with an extension of $1100\, R_{\odot }$. We discuss if hydrogen features are present in both maximum-light and nebular spectra, and their implications in terms of the proposed progenitor scenarios for Calcium-rich transients.

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    We present an in-depth study of the late-time near-infrared plateau in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), which occurs between 70 and 500 d. We double the existing sample of SNe Ia observed during the late-time near-infrared plateau with new observations taken with the Hubble Space Telescope, Gemini, New Technology Telescope, the 3.5-m Calar Alto Telescope, and the Nordic Optical Telescope. Our sample consists of 24 nearby SNe Ia at redshift < 0.025. We are able to confirm that no plateau exists in the Ks band for most normal SNe Ia. SNe Ia with broader optical light curves at peak tend to have a higher average brightness on the plateau in J and H, most likely due to a shallower decline in the preceding 100 d. SNe Ia that are more luminous at peak also show a steeper decline during the plateau phase in H. We compare our data to state-of-the-art radiative transfer models of nebular SNe Ia in the near-infrared. We find good agreement with the sub-Mch model that has reduced non-thermal ionization rates, but no physical justification for reducing these rates has yet been proposed. An analysis of the spectral evolution during the plateau demonstrates that the ratio of [Fe ii] to [Fe iii] contribution in a near-infrared filter determines the light curve evolution in said filter. We find that overluminous SNe decline slower during the plateau than expected from the trend seen for normal SNe Ia.

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  4. Abstract

    We present multiwavelength photometry and spectroscopy of SN 2022jli, an unprecedented Type Ic supernova discovered in the galaxy NGC 157 at a distance of ≈ 23 Mpc. The multiband light curves reveal many remarkable characteristics. Peaking at a magnitude ofg= 15.11 ± 0.02, the high-cadence photometry reveals periodic undulations of 12.5 ± 0.2 days superimposed on the 200-day supernova decline. This periodicity is observed in the light curves from nine separate filter and instrument configurations with peak-to-peak amplitudes of ≃ 0.1 mag. This is the first time that repeated periodic oscillations, over many cycles, have been detected in a supernova light curve. SN 2022jli also displays an extreme early excess that fades over ≈25 days, followed by a rise to a peak luminosity ofLopt= 1042.1erg s−1. Although the exact explosion epoch is not constrained by data, the time from explosion to maximum light is ≳ 59 days. The luminosity can be explained by a large ejecta mass (Mej≈ 12 ± 6M) powered by56Ni, but we find it difficult to quantitatively model the early excess with circumstellar interaction and cooling. Collision between the supernova ejecta and a binary companion is a possible source of this emission. We discuss the origin of the periodic variability in the light curve, including interaction of the SN ejecta with nested shells of circumstellar matter and neutron stars colliding with binary companions.

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    We present deep optical and near-infrared photometry of UID 30901, a superluminous supernova (SLSN) discovered during the UltraVISTA survey. The observations were obtained with VIRCAM (YJHKs) mounted on the VISTA telescope, DECam (griz) on the Blanco telescope, and SUBARU Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC; grizy). These multiband observations comprise +700 d making UID 30901 one of the best photometrically followed SLSNe to date. The host galaxy of UID 30901 is detected in a deep HST F814W image with an AB magnitude of 27.3 ± 0.2. While no spectra exist for the SN or its host galaxy, we perform our analysis assuming z = 0.37, based on the photometric redshift of a possible host galaxy found at a projected distance of 7 kpc. Fitting a blackbody to the observations, the radius, temperature, and bolometric light curve are computed. We find a maximum bolometric luminosity of 5.4 ± 0.34 × 1043 erg s−1. A flattening in the light curve beyond 600 d is observed and several possible causes are discussed. We find the observations to clearly favour an SLSN type I, and plausible power sources such as the radioactive decay of 56Ni and the spin-down of a magnetar are compared to the data. We find that the magnetar model yields a good fit to the observations with the following parameters: a magnetic field B = 1.4 ± 0.3 × 1014 G, spin period of P = 6.0 ± 0.1 ms, and ejecta mass $M_{\mathrm{ ej}} = 11.9^{+4.8}_{-6.4} \,\mathrm{ M}_{\odot }$.

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  6. Aims. The modelling of spectroscopic observations of tidal disruption events (TDEs) to date suggests that the newly formed accretion disks are mostly quasi-circular. In this work we study the transient event AT 2020zso, hosted by an active galactic nucleus (AGN; as inferred from narrow emission line diagnostics), with the aim of characterising the properties of its newly formed accretion flow. Methods. We classify AT 2020zso as a TDE based on the blackbody evolution inferred from UV/optical photometric observations and spectral line content and evolution. We identify transient, double-peaked Bowen (N  III ), He  I , He  II, and H α emission lines. We model medium-resolution optical spectroscopy of the He  II (after careful de-blending of the N  III contribution) and H α lines during the rise, peak, and early decline of the light curve using relativistic, elliptical accretion disk models. Results. We find that the spectral evolution before the peak can be explained by optical depth effects consistent with an outflowing, optically thick Eddington envelope. Around the peak, the envelope reaches its maximum extent (approximately 10 15 cm, or ∼3000–6000 gravitational radii for an inferred black hole mass of 5−10 × 10 5 M ⊙ ) and becomes optically thin. The H α and He  II emission lines at and after the peak can be reproduced with a highly inclined ( i  = 85 ± 5 degrees), highly elliptical ( e  = 0.97 ± 0.01), and relatively compact ( R in = several 100 R g and R out = several 1000 R g ) accretion disk. Conclusions. Overall, the line profiles suggest a highly elliptical geometry for the new accretion flow, consistent with theoretical expectations of newly formed TDE disks. We quantitatively confirm, for the first time, the high inclination nature of a Bowen (and X-ray dim) TDE, consistent with the unification picture of TDEs, where the inclination largely determines the observational appearance. Rapid line profile variations rule out the binary supermassive black hole hypothesis as the origin of the eccentricity; these results thus provide a direct link between a TDE in an AGN and the eccentric accretion disk. We illustrate for the first time how optical spectroscopy can be used to constrain the black hole spin, through (the lack of) disk precession signatures (changes in inferred inclination). We constrain the disk alignment timescale to > 15 days in AT2020zso, which rules out high black hole spin values ( a  < 0.8) for M BH  ∼ 10 6 M ⊙ and disk viscosity α  ≳ 0.1. 
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  7. Abstract

    We present the discovery and extensive follow-up of a remarkable fast-evolving optical transient, AT 2022aedm, detected by the Asteroid Terrestrial impact Last Alert Survey (ATLAS). In the ATLASoband, AT 2022aedm exhibited a rise time of 9 ± 1 days, reaching a luminous peak withMg≈ −22 mag. It faded by 2 mag in thegband during the next 15 days. These timescales are consistent with other rapidly evolving transients, though the luminosity is extreme. Most surprisingly, the host galaxy is a massive elliptical with negligible current star formation. Radio and X-ray observations rule out a relativistic AT 2018cow–like explosion. A spectrum in the first few days after explosion showed short-lived Heiiemission resembling young core-collapse supernovae, but obvious broad supernova features never developed; later spectra showed only a fast-cooling continuum and narrow, blueshifted absorption lines, possibly arising in a wind withv≈ 2700 km s−1. We identify two further transients in the literature (Dougie in particular, as well as AT 2020bot) that share similarities in their luminosities, timescales, color evolution, and largely featureless spectra and propose that these may constitute a new class of transients: luminous fast coolers. All three events occurred in passive galaxies at offsets of ∼4–10 kpc from the nucleus, posing a challenge for progenitor models involving massive stars or black holes. The light curves and spectra appear to be consistent with shock breakout emission, though this mechanism is usually associated with core-collapse supernovae. The encounter of a star with a stellar-mass black hole may provide a promising alternative explanation.

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  8. Type II supernovae (SNe II) show great photometric and spectroscopic diversity which is attributed to the varied physical characteristics of their progenitor and explosion properties. In this study, the third of a series of papers where we analyse a large sample of SNe II observed by the Carnegie Supernova Project-I, we present correlations between their observed and physical properties. Our analysis shows that explosion energy is the physical property that correlates with the highest number of parameters. We recover previously suggested relationships between the hydrogen-rich envelope mass and the plateau duration, and find that more luminous SNe II with higher expansion velocities, faster declining light curves, and higher 56 Ni masses are consistent with higher energy explosions. In addition, faster declining SNe II (usually called SNe IIL) are also compatible with more concentrated 56 Ni in the inner regions of the ejecta. Positive trends are found between the initial mass, explosion energy, and 56 Ni mass. While the explosion energy spans the full range explored with our models, the initial mass generally arises from a relatively narrow range. Observable properties were measured from our grid of bolometric LC and photospheric velocity models to determine the effect of each physical parameter on the observed SN II diversity. We argue that explosion energy is the physical parameter causing the greatest impact on SN II diversity, that is, assuming the non-rotating solar-metallicity single-star evolution as in the models used in this study. The inclusion of pre-SN models assuming higher mass loss produces a significant increase in the strength of some correlations, particularly those between the progenitor hydrogen-rich envelope mass and the plateau and optically thick phase durations. These differences clearly show the impact of having different treatments of stellar evolution, implying that changes in the assumption of standard single-star evolution are necessary for a complete understanding of SN II diversity. 
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  9. ABSTRACT We present Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integral-field spectroscopy of ESO 253−G003, which hosts a known active galactic nucleus (AGN) and the periodic nuclear transient ASASSN-14ko, observed as part of the All-weather MUse Supernova Integral-field of Nearby Galaxies survey. The MUSE observations reveal that the inner region hosts two AGN separated by $1.4\pm 0.1~\rm {kpc}$ (≈1${_{.}^{\prime\prime}}$7). The brighter nucleus has asymmetric broad permitted emission-line profiles and is associated with the archival AGN designation. The fainter nucleus does not have a broad emission-line component but exhibits other AGN characteristics, including $\hbox{$v_{\rm {FWHM}}$} \approx 700~\hbox{km~s$^{-1}$}$ forbidden line emission, $\rm{\log _{10}(\rm{[O\,\small {III}]}/\rm{H\beta})} \approx 1.1$, and high-excitation potential emission lines, such as [Fe vii] λ6086 and He ii λ4686. The host galaxy exhibits a disturbed morphology with large kpc-scale tidal features, potential outflows from both nuclei, and a likely superbubble. A circular relativistic disc model cannot reproduce the asymmetric broad emission-line profiles in the brighter nucleus, but two non-axisymmetric disc models provide good fits to the broad emission-line profiles: an elliptical disc model and a circular disc + spiral arm model. Implications for the periodic nuclear transient ASASSN-14ko are discussed. 
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    We present detailed investigation of a specific i-band light-curve feature in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using the rapid cadence and high signal-to-noise ratio light curves obtained by the Carnegie Supernova Project. The feature is present in most SNe Ia and emerges a few days after the i-band maximum. It is an abrupt change in curvature in the light curve over a few days and appears as a flattening in mild cases and a strong downward concave shape, or a ‘kink’, in the most extreme cases. We computed the second derivatives of Gaussian Process interpolations to study 54 rapid-cadence light curves. From the second derivatives we measure: (1) the timing of the feature in days relative to i-band maximum; tdm2(i) and (2) the strength and direction of the concavity in mag d−2; dm2(i). 76 per cent of the SNe Ia show a negative dm2(i), representing a downward concavity – either a mild flattening or a strong ‘kink’. The tdm2(i) parameter is shown to correlate with the colour-stretch parameter sBV, a SN Ia primary parameter. The dm2(i) parameter shows no correlation with sBV and therefore provides independent information. It is also largely independent of the spectroscopic and environmental properties. Dividing the sample based on the strength of the light-curve feature as measured by dm2(i), SNe Ia with strong features have a Hubble diagram dispersion of 0.107 mag, 0.075 mag smaller than the group with weak features. Although larger samples should be obtained to test this result, it potentially offers a new method for improving SN Ia distance determinations without shifting to more costly near-infrared or spectroscopic observations.

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