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  1. The proliferation of GPS-enabled devices has led to the development of numerous location-based services. These services need to process massive amounts of streamed spatial data in real-time. The current scale of spatial data cannot be handled using centralized systems. This has led to the development of distributed spatial streaming systems. Existing systems are using static spatial partitioning to distribute the workload. In contrast, the real-time streamed spatial data follows non-uniform spatial distributions that are continuously changing over time. Distributed spatial streaming systems need to react to the changes in the distribution of spatial data and queries. This article introduces SWARM, a lightweight adaptivity protocol that continuously monitors the data and query workloads across the distributed processes of the spatial data streaming system and redistributes and rebalances the workloads as soon as performance bottlenecks get detected. SWARM is able to handle multiple query-execution and data-persistence models. A distributed streaming system can directly use SWARM to adaptively rebalance the system’s workload among its machines with minimal changes to the original code of the underlying spatial application. Extensive experimental evaluation using real and synthetic datasets illustrate that, on average, SWARM achieves 2 improvement in throughput over a static grid partitioning that is determinedmore »based on observing a limited history of the data and query workloads. Moreover, SWARM reduces execution latency on average 4 compared with the other technique.« less
  2. Many applications require update-intensive work-loads on spatial objects, e.g., social-network services and shared-riding services that track moving objects (devices). By buffering insert and delete operations in memory, the Log Structured Merge Tree (LSM) has been used widely in various systems because of its ability to handle insert-intensive workloads. While the focus on LSM has been on key-value stores and their optimizations, there is a need to study how to efficiently support LSM-based secondary indexes. We investigate the augmentation of a main-memory-based memo structure into an LSM secondary index structure to handle update-intensive workloads efficiently. We conduct this study in the context of an R-tree-based secondary index. In particular, we introduce the LSM RUM-tree that demonstrates the use of an Update Memo in an LSM-based R-tree to enhance the performance of the R-tree's insert, delete, update, and search operations. The LSM RUM-tree introduces novel strategies to reduce the size of the Update Memo to be a light-weight in-memory structure that is suitable for handling update-intensive workloads without introducing significant over-head. Experimental results using real spatial data demonstrate that the LSM RUM-tree achieves up to 9.6x speedup on update operations and up to 2400x speedup on query processing over the existing LSMmore »R-tree implementations.« less
  3. The wide spread of GPS-enabled devices and the Internet of Things (IoT) has increased the amount of spatial data being generated every second. The current scale of spatial data cannot be handled using centralized systems. This has led to the development of distributed spatial data streaming systems that scale to process in real-time large amounts of streamed spatial data. The performance of distributed streaming systems relies on how even the workload is distributed among their machines. However, it is challenging to estimate the workload of each machine because spatial data and query streams are skewed and rapidly change with time and users' interests. Moreover, a distributed spatial streaming system often does not maintain a global system workload state because it requires high network and processing overheads to be collected from the machines in the system. This paper introduces TrioStat; an online workload estimation technique that relies on a probabilistic model for estimating the workload of partitions and machines in a distributed spatial data streaming system. It is infeasible to collect and exchange statistics with a centralized unit because it requires high network overhead. Instead, TrioStat uses a decentralised technique to collect and maintain the required statistics in real-time locally inmore »each machine. TrioStat enables distributed spatial data streaming systems to compare the workloads of machines as well as the workloads of data partitions. TrioStat requires minimal network and storage overhead. Moreover, the required storage is distributed across the system's machines.« less
  4. Recently, Machine Learning (ML, for short) has been successfully applied to database indexing. Initial experimentation on Learned Indexes has demonstrated better search performance and lower space requirements than their traditional database counterparts. Numerous attempts have been explored to extend learned indexes to the multi-dimensional space. This makes learned indexes potentially suitable for spatial databases. The goal of this tutorial is to provide up-to-date coverage of learned indexes both in the single and multi-dimensional spaces. The tutorial covers over 25 learned indexes. The tutorial navigates through the space of learned indexes through a taxonomy that helps classify the covered learned indexes both in the single and multi-dimensional spaces.