The biota of Sulawesi is noted for its high degree of endemism and for its substantial levels of in situ biological diversification. While the island’s long period of isolation and dynamic tectonic history have been implicated as drivers of the regional diversification, this has rarely been tested in the context of an explicit geological framework. Here, we provide a tectonically informed biogeographical framework that we use to explore the diversification history of Sulawesi flying lizards (the Draco lineatus Group), a radiation that is endemic to Sulawesi and its surrounding islands. We employ a framework for inferring cryptic speciation that involves phylogeographic and genetic clustering analyses as a means of identifying potential species followed by population demographic assessment of divergence-timing and rates of bi-directional migration as means of confirming lineage independence (and thus species status). Using this approach, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of mitochondrial sequence data obtained for 613 samples, a 50-SNP data set for 370 samples, and a 1249-locus exon-capture data set for 106 samples indicate that the current taxonomy substantially understates the true number of Sulawesi Draco species, that both cryptic and arrested speciations have taken place, and that ancient hybridization confounds phylogenetic analyses that do notmore »
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Species Delimitation, Phylogenomics, and Biogeography of Sulawesi Flying Lizards: A Diversification History Complicated by Ancient Hybridization, Cryptic Species, and Arrested Speciation
Phylogeographic inference of Sumatran ranids bearing gastromyzophorous tadpoles with regard to the Pleistocene drainage systems of Sundaland
Rivers are known to act as biogeographic barriers in several strictly terrestrial taxa, while possibly serving as conduits of dispersal for freshwater-tolerant or -dependent species. However, the influence of river systems on genetic diversity depends on taxa-specific life history traits as well as other geographic factors. In amphibians, several studies have demonstrated that river systems have only minor influence on their divergence. Here, we assess the role of the paleodrainage systems of the Sunda region (with a focus on the island of Sumatra) in shaping the evolutionary history of two genera of frogs (
Sumateranaand Wijayarana) whose tadpoles are highly dependent on cascading stream habitats. Our phylogenetic results show no clear association between the genetic diversification patterns of both anurans genera and the existence of paleodrainage systems. Time-calibrated phylogenies and biogeographical models suggest that these frogs colonized Sumatra and diversified on the island before the occurrence of the Pleistocene drainage systems. Both genera demonstrate phylogenetic structuring along a north–south geographic axis, the temporal dynamics of which coincide with the geological chronology of proto Sumatran and -Javan volcanic islands. Our results also highlight the chronic underestimation of Sumatran biodiversity and call for more intense sampling efforts on the island.