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  1. Abstract The classical definition of the virial temperature of a galaxy halo excludes a fundamental contribution to the energy partition of the halo: the kinetic energy of nonthermal gas motions. Using simulations of low-redshift, ∼ L * galaxies from the Figuring Out Gas & Galaxies In Enzo (FOGGIE) project that are optimized to resolve low-density gas, we show that the kinetic energy of nonthermal motions is roughly equal to the energy of thermal motions. The simulated FOGGIE halos have ∼2× lower bulk temperatures than expected from a classical virial equilibrium, owing to significant nonthermal kinetic energy that is formally excludedmore »from the definition of T vir . We explicitly derive a modified virial temperature including nonthermal gas motions that provides a more accurate description of gas temperatures for simulated halos in virial equilibrium. Strong bursts of stellar feedback drive the simulated FOGGIE halos out of virial equilibrium, but the halo gas cannot be accurately described by the standard virial temperature even when in virial equilibrium. Compared to the standard virial temperature, the cooler modified virial temperature implies other effects on halo gas: (i) the thermal gas pressure is lower, (ii) radiative cooling is more efficient, (iii) O vi absorbing gas that traces the virial temperature may be prevalent in halos of a higher mass than expected, (iv) gas mass estimates from X-ray surface brightness profiles may be incorrect, and (v) turbulent motions make an important contribution to the energy balance of a galaxy halo.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 25, 2022
  2. ABSTRACT We present results of MUSE-ALMA haloes, an ongoing study of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of galaxies (z ≤ 1.4). Using multiphase observations we probe the neutral, ionized, and molecular gas in a subsample containing six absorbers and nine associated galaxies in the redshift range z ∼ 0.3–0.75. Here, we give an in-depth analysis of the newly CO-detected galaxy Q2131−G1 (z = 0.42974), while providing stringent mass and depletion time limits for the non-detected galaxies. Q2131−G1 is associated with an absorber with column densities of log(NH i/cm−2) ∼ 19.5 and $\textrm {log}(N_{\textrm {H}_2}/\textrm {cm}^{-2}) \sim 16.5$, and has a star formationmore »rate of SFR = 2.00 ± 0.20 M⊙yr−1, a dark matter fraction of fDM(r1/2) = 0.24–0.54, and a molecular gas mass of $M_\textrm {mol} = 3.52 ^{+3.95}_{-0.31} \times 10^9 \,\, \textrm {M}_{\odot }$ resulting in a depletion time of τdep < 4.15 Gyr. Kinematic modelling of both the CO (3–2) and [O iii] λ5008 emission lines of Q2131−G1 shows that the molecular and ionized gas phases are well aligned directionally and that the maximum rotation velocities closely match. These two gas phases within the disc are strongly coupled. The metallicity, kinematics, and orientation of the atomic and molecular gas traced by a two-component absorption feature are consistent with being part of the extended rotating disc with a well-separated additional component associated with infalling gas. Compared to emission-selected samples, we find that H i-selected galaxies have high molecular gas masses given their low star formation rate. We consequently derive high depletion times for these objects.« less