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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  2. Abstract Neutron stars provide a unique laboratory for studying matter at extreme pressures and densities. While there is no direct way to explore their interior structure, X-rays emitted from these stars can indirectly provide clues to the equation of state (EOS) of the superdense nuclear matter through the inference of the star's mass and radius. However, inference of EOS directly from a star's X-ray spectra is extremely challenging and is complicated by systematic uncertainties. The current state of the art is to use simulation-based likelihoods in a piece-wise method which relies on certain theoretical assumptions and simplifications about the uncertainties. It first infers the star's mass and radius to reduce the dimensionality of the problem, and from those quantities infer the EOS. We demonstrate a series of enhancements to the state of the art, in terms of realistic uncertainty quantification and a path towards circumventing the need for theoretical assumptions to infer physical properties with machine learning. We also demonstrate novel inference of the EOS directly from the high-dimensional spectra of observed stars, avoiding the intermediate mass-radius step. Our network is conditioned on the sources of uncertainty of each star, allowing for natural and complete propagation of uncertainties to the EOS. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  4. Abstract We report a method for the phase reconstruction of an ultrashort laser pulse based on the deep learning of the nonlinear spectral changes induce by self-phase modulation. The neural networks were trained on simulated pulses with random initial phases and spectra, with pulse durations between 8.5 and 65 fs. The reconstruction is valid with moderate spectral resolution, and is robust to noise. The method was validated on experimental data produced from an ultrafast laser system, where near real-time phase reconstructions were performed. This method can be used in systems with known linear and nonlinear responses, even when the fluence is not known, making this method ideal for difficult to measure beams such as the high energy, large aperture beams produced in petawatt systems. 
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  5. A bstract Distinguishing between prompt muons produced in heavy boson decay and muons produced in association with heavy-flavor jet production is an important task in analysis of collider physics data. We explore whether there is information available in calorimeter deposits that is not captured by the standard approach of isolation cones. We find that convolutional networks and particle-flow networks accessing the calorimeter cells surpass the performance of isolation cones, suggesting that the radial energy distribution and the angular structure of the calorimeter deposits surrounding the muon contain unused discrimination power. We assemble a small set of high-level observables which summarize the calorimeter information and close the performance gap with networks which analyze the calorimeter cells directly. These observables are theoretically well-defined and can be studied with collider data. 
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  6. null (Ed.)

    Bucket Elimination (BE) is a universal inference scheme that can solve most tasks over probabilistic and deterministic graphical models exactly.However, it often requires exponentially high levels of memory (in the induced-width) preventing its execution. In the spirit of exploiting Deep Learning for inference tasks, in this paper, we will use neural networks to approximate BE.The resulting Deep Bucket Elimination (DBE) algorithm is developed for computing the partition function.We provide a proof-of-concept empirically using instances from several different benchmarks, showing that DBE can be a more accurate approximation than current state-of-the-art approaches for approximating BE (e.g. the mini-bucket schemes), especially when problems are sufficiently hard.

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