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1. Let L be a set of n axis-parallel lines in R3. We are are interested in partitions of R3 by a set H of three planes such that each open cell in the arrangement A(H) is intersected by as few lines from L as possible. We study such partitions in three settings, depending on the type of splitting planes that we allow. We obtain the following results. * There are sets L of n axis-parallel lines such that, for any set H of three splitting planes, there is an open cell in A(H)  that intersects at least ⌊n/3⌋ - 1 ≈ n/3 lines. * If we require the splitting planes to be axis-parallel, then there are sets L of n axis-parallel lines such that, for any set H of three splitting planes, there is an open cell in A(H) that intersects at least (3/2) ⌊n/3⌋ - 1 ≈ (1/3 + 1/24) n lines. Furthermore, for any set L of n axis-parallel lines, there exists a set H of three axis-parallel splitting planes such that each open cell in A(H) intersects at most (7/18) n = (1/3 + 1/18) n lines. * For any set L of n axis-parallel lines, there exists a set H of three axis-parallel and mutually orthogonal splitting planes, such that each open cell in A(H) intersects at most ⌈5/12 n⌉ ≈ (1/3 + 1/12) n lines.
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Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 17, 2024
2. For an $r$-uniform hypergraph $H$, let $\nu^{(m)}(H)$ denote the maximum size of a set $M$ of edges in $H$ such that every two edges in $M$ intersect in less than $m$ vertices, and let $\tau^{(m)}(H)$ denote the minimum size of a collection $C$ of $m$-sets of vertices such that every edge in $H$ contains an element of $C$. The fractional analogues of these parameters are denoted by $\nu^{*(m)}(H)$ and $\tau^{*(m)}(H)$, respectively. Generalizing a famous conjecture of Tuza on covering triangles in a graph, Aharoni and Zerbib conjectured that for every $r$-uniform hypergraph $H$, $\tau^{(r-1)}(H)/\nu^{(r-1)}(H) \leq \lceil{\frac{r+1}{2}}\rceil$. In this paper we prove bounds on the ratio between the parameters $\tau^{(m)}$ and $\nu^{(m)}$, and their fractional analogues. Our main result is that, for every $r$-uniform hypergraph~$H$,$\tau^{*(r-1)}(H)/\nu^{(r-1)}(H) \le \begin{cases} \frac{3}{4}r - \frac{r}{4(r+1)} &\text{for }r\text{ even,}\\\frac{3}{4}r - \frac{r}{4(r+2)} &\text{for }r\text{ odd.} \\\end{cases}$This improves the known bound of $r-1$.We also prove that, for every $r$-uniform hypergraph $H$, $\tau^{(m)}(H)/\nu^{*(m)}(H) \le \operatorname{ex}_m(r, m+1)$, where the Turán number $\operatorname{ex}_r(n, k)$ is the maximum number of edges in an $r$-uniform hypergraph on $n$ vertices that does not contain a copy of the complete $r$-uniform hypergraph on $k$ vertices. Finally, we prove further bounds in the special cases $(r,m)=(4,2)$ and $(r,m)=(4,3)$.
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3. Abstract A bipartite graph $H = \left (V_1, V_2; E \right )$ with $\lvert V_1\rvert + \lvert V_2\rvert = n$ is semilinear if $V_i \subseteq \mathbb {R}^{d_i}$ for some $d_i$ and the edge relation E consists of the pairs of points $(x_1, x_2) \in V_1 \times V_2$ satisfying a fixed Boolean combination of s linear equalities and inequalities in $d_1 + d_2$ variables for some s . We show that for a fixed k , the number of edges in a $K_{k,k}$ -free semilinear H is almost linear in n , namely $\lvert E\rvert = O_{s,k,\varepsilon }\left (n^{1+\varepsilon }\right )$ for any $\varepsilon> 0$ ; and more generally, $\lvert E\rvert = O_{s,k,r,\varepsilon }\left (n^{r-1 + \varepsilon }\right )$ for a $K_{k, \dotsc ,k}$ -free semilinear r -partite r -uniform hypergraph. As an application, we obtain the following incidence bound: given $n_1$ points and $n_2$ open boxes with axis-parallel sides in $\mathbb {R}^d$ such that their incidence graph is $K_{k,k}$ -free, there can be at most $O_{k,\varepsilon }\left (n^{1+\varepsilon }\right )$ incidences. The same bound holds if instead of boxes, one takes polytopes cut out by the translates of an arbitrary fixed finite set of half-spaces. We also obtain matching upper and (superlinear) lower bounds in the case of dyadic boxes on the plane, and point out some connections to the model-theoretic trichotomy in o -minimal structures (showing that the failure of an almost-linear bound for some definable graph allows one to recover the field operations from that graph in a definable manner).
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