Improved Bounds on a Generalization of Tuza's Conjecture
For an $r$-uniform hypergraph $H$, let $\nu^{(m)}(H)$ denote the maximum size of a set $M$ of edges in $H$ such that every two edges in $M$ intersect in less than $m$ vertices, and let $\tau^{(m)}(H)$ denote the minimum size of a collection $C$ of $m$-sets of vertices such that every edge in $H$ contains an element of $C$. The fractional analogues of these parameters are denoted by $\nu^{*(m)}(H)$ and $\tau^{*(m)}(H)$, respectively. Generalizing a famous conjecture of Tuza on covering triangles in a graph, Aharoni and Zerbib conjectured that for every $r$-uniform hypergraph $H$, $\tau^{(r-1)}(H)/\nu^{(r-1)}(H) \leq \lceil{\frac{r+1}{2}}\rceil$. In this paper we prove bounds on the ratio between the parameters $\tau^{(m)}$ and $\nu^{(m)}$, and their fractional analogues. Our main result is that, for every $r$-uniform hypergraph~$H$,$\tau^{*(r-1)}(H)/\nu^{(r-1)}(H) \le \begin{cases} \frac{3}{4}r - \frac{r}{4(r+1)} &\text{for }r\text{ even,}\\\frac{3}{4}r - \frac{r}{4(r+2)} &\text{for }r\text{ odd.} \\\end{cases}$This improves the known bound of $r-1$.We also prove that, for every $r$-uniform hypergraph $H$, $\tau^{(m)}(H)/\nu^{*(m)}(H) \le \operatorname{ex}_m(r, m+1)$, where the Turán number $\operatorname{ex}_r(n, k)$ is the maximum number of edges in an $r$-uniform hypergraph on $n$ vertices that does not contain a copy of the complete $r$-uniform hypergraph on $k$ vertices. Finally, we prove further bounds in the special cases $(r,m)=(4,2)$ and $(r,m)=(4,3)$.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
NSF-PAR ID:
10395453
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Electronic Journal of Combinatorics
Volume:
29
Issue:
4
ISSN:
1077-8926
Format(s):
Medium: X
National Science Foundation
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1. One of the most intruguing conjectures in extremal graph theory is the conjecture of Erdős and Sós from 1962, which asserts that every $n$-vertex graph with more than $\frac{k-1}{2}n$ edges contains any $k$-edge tree as a subgraph. Kalai proposed a generalization of this conjecture to hypergraphs. To explain the generalization, we need to define the concept of a tight tree in an $r$-uniform hypergraph, i.e., a hypergraph where each edge contains $r$ vertices. A tight tree is an $r$-uniform hypergraph such that there is an ordering $v_1,\ldots,v_n$ of its its vertices with the following property: the vertices $v_1,\ldots,v_r$ form an edge and for every $i>r$, there is a single edge $e$ containing the vertex $v_i$ and $r-1$ of the vertices $v_1,\ldots,v_{i-1}$, and $e\setminus\{v_i\}$ is a subset of one of the edges consisting only of vertices from $v_1,\ldots,v_{i-1}$. The conjecture of Kalai asserts that every $n$-vertex $r$-uniform hypergraph with more than $\frac{k-1}{r}\binom{n}{r-1}$ edges contains every $k$-edge tight tree as a subhypergraph. The recent breakthrough results on the existence of combinatorial designs by Keevash and by Glock, Kühn, Lo and Osthus show that this conjecture, if true, would be tight for infinitely many values of $n$ for every $r$ and $k$.The article deals with the special case of the conjecture when the sought tight tree is a path, i.e., the edges are the $r$-tuples of consecutive vertices in the above ordering. The case $r=2$ is the famous Erdős-Gallai theorem on the existence of paths in graphs. The case $r=3$ and $k=4$ follows from an earlier work of the authors on the conjecture of Kalai. The main result of the article is the first non-trivial upper bound valid for all $r$ and $k$. The proof is based on techniques developed for a closely related problem where a hypergraph comes with a geometric structure: the vertices are points in the plane in a strictly convex position and the sought path has to zigzag beetwen the vertices.
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3. Abstract

Let$M_{\langle \mathbf {u},\mathbf {v},\mathbf {w}\rangle }\in \mathbb C^{\mathbf {u}\mathbf {v}}{\mathord { \otimes } } \mathbb C^{\mathbf {v}\mathbf {w}}{\mathord { \otimes } } \mathbb C^{\mathbf {w}\mathbf {u}}$denote the matrix multiplication tensor (and write$M_{\langle \mathbf {n} \rangle }=M_{\langle \mathbf {n},\mathbf {n},\mathbf {n}\rangle }$), and let$\operatorname {det}_3\in (\mathbb C^9)^{{\mathord { \otimes } } 3}$denote the determinant polynomial considered as a tensor. For a tensorT, let$\underline {\mathbf {R}}(T)$denote its border rank. We (i) give the first hand-checkable algebraic proof that$\underline {\mathbf {R}}(M_{\langle 2\rangle })=7$, (ii) prove$\underline {\mathbf {R}}(M_{\langle 223\rangle })=10$and$\underline {\mathbf {R}}(M_{\langle 233\rangle })=14$, where previously the only nontrivial matrix multiplication tensor whose border rank had been determined was$M_{\langle 2\rangle }$, (iii) prove$\underline {\mathbf {R}}( M_{\langle 3\rangle })\geq 17$, (iv) prove$\underline {\mathbf {R}}(\operatorname {det}_3)=17$, improving the previous lower bound of$12$, (v) prove$\underline {\mathbf {R}}(M_{\langle 2\mathbf {n}\mathbf {n}\rangle })\geq \mathbf {n}^2+1.32\mathbf {n}$for all$\mathbf {n}\geq 25$, where previously only$\underline {\mathbf {R}}(M_{\langle 2\mathbf {n}\mathbf {n}\rangle })\geq \mathbf {n}^2+1$was known, as well as lower bounds for$4\leq \mathbf {n}\leq 25$, and (vi) prove$\underline {\mathbf {R}}(M_{\langle 3\mathbf {n}\mathbf {n}\rangle })\geq \mathbf {n}^2+1.6\mathbf {n}$for all$\mathbf {n} \ge 18$, where previously only$\underline {\mathbf {R}}(M_{\langle 3\mathbf {n}\mathbf {n}\rangle })\geq \mathbf {n}^2+2$was known. The last two results are significant for two reasons: (i) they are essentially the first nontrivial lower bounds for tensors in an “unbalanced” ambient space and (ii) they demonstrate that the methods we use (border apolarity) may be applied to sequences of tensors.

The methods used to obtain the results are new and “nonnatural” in the sense of Razborov and Rudich, in that the results are obtained via an algorithm that cannot be effectively applied to generic tensors. We utilize a new technique, calledborder apolaritydeveloped by Buczyńska and Buczyński in the general context of toric varieties. We apply this technique to develop an algorithm that, given a tensorTand an integerr, in a finite number of steps, either outputs that there is no border rankrdecomposition forTor produces a list of all normalized ideals which could potentially result from a border rank decomposition. The algorithm is effectively implementable whenThas a large symmetry group, in which case it outputs potential decompositions in a natural normal form. The algorithm is based on algebraic geometry and representation theory.

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5. Abstract

Let denote the complete 3‐uniform hypergraph on vertices and the 3‐uniform hypergraph on vertices consisting of all edges incident to a given vertex. Whereas many hypergraph Ramsey numbers grow either at most polynomially or at least exponentially, we show that the off‐diagonal Ramsey number exhibits an unusual intermediate growth rate, namely,for some positive constants and . The proof of these bounds brings in a novel Ramsey problem on grid graphs which may be of independent interest: what is the minimum such that any 2‐edge‐coloring of the Cartesian product contains either a red rectangle or a blue ?

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