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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  2. The generalization of representations learned via contrastive learning depends crucially on what features of the data are extracted. However, we observe that the contrastive loss does not always sufficiently guide which features are extracted, a behavior that can negatively impact the performance on downstream tasks via “shortcuts”, i.e., by inadvertently suppressing important predictive features. We find that feature extraction is influenced by the difficulty of the so-called instance discrimination task (i.e., the task of discriminating pairs of similar points from pairs of dissimilar ones). Although harder pairs improve the representation of some features, the improvement comes at the cost of suppressing previously well represented features. In response, we propose implicit feature modification (IFM), a method for altering positive and negative samples in order to guide contrastive models towards capturing a wider variety of predictive features. Empirically, we observe that IFM reduces feature suppression, and as a result improves performance on vision and medical imaging tasks. The code is available at: https://github. com/joshr17/IFM. 
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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  4. null (Ed.)
  5. Recently, researches related to unsupervised disentanglement learning with deep generative models have gained substantial popularity. However, without introducing supervision, there is no guarantee that the factors of interest can be successfully recovered (Locatello et al. 2018). Motivated by a real-world problem, we propose a setting where the user introduces weak supervision by providing similarities between instances based on a factor to be disentangled. The similarity is provided as either a binary (yes/no) or real-valued label describing whether a pair of instances are similar or not. We propose a new method for weakly supervised disentanglement of latent variables within the framework of Variational Autoencoder. Experimental results demonstrate that utilizing weak supervision improves the performance of the disentanglement method substantially. 
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  6. Alfonso, Valencia (Ed.)
    Abstract Motivation There is growing interest in the biomedical research community to incorporate retrospective data, available in healthcare systems, to shed light on associations between different biomarkers. Understanding the association between various types of biomedical data, such as genetic, blood biomarkers, imaging, etc. can provide a holistic understanding of human diseases. To formally test a hypothesized association between two types of data in Electronic Health Records (EHRs), one requires a substantial sample size with both data modalities to achieve a reasonable power. Current association test methods only allow using data from individuals who have both data modalities. Hence, researchers cannot take advantage of much larger EHR samples that includes individuals with at least one of the data types, which limits the power of the association test. Results We present a new method called the Semi-paired Association Test (SAT) that makes use of both paired and unpaired data. In contrast to classical approaches, incorporating unpaired data allows SAT to produce better control of false discovery and to improve the power of the association test. We study the properties of the new test theoretically and empirically, through a series of simulations and by applying our method on real studies in the context of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. We are able to identify an association between the high-dimensional characterization of Computed Tomography chest images and several blood biomarkers as well as the expression of dozens of genes involved in the immune system. Availability and implementation Code is available on Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. 
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  7. The majority of state-of-the-art deep learning methods are discriminative approaches, which model the conditional distribution of labels given inputs features. The success of such approaches heavily depends on high-quality labeled instances, which are not easy to obtain, especially as the number of candidate classes increases. In this paper, we study the complementary learning problem. Unlike ordinary labels, complementary labels are easy to obtain because an annotator only needs to provide a yes/no answer to a randomly chosen candidate class for each instance. We propose a generative-discriminative complementary learning method that estimates the ordinary labels by modeling both the conditional (discriminative) and instance (generative) distributions. Our method, we call Complementary Conditional GAN (CCGAN), improves the accuracy of predicting ordinary labels and is able to generate high-quality instances in spite of weak supervision. In addition to the extensive empirical studies, we also theoretically show that our model can retrieve the true conditional distribution from the complementarily-labeled data. 
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