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  1. Abstract

    In this work, we compare star formation histories of massive (10.5<log(M*/M)<12) galaxies in the UniverseMachine model to those measured from the Large Early Galaxy Astrophysics Census (LEGA-C) at 0.6 < z < 1. Following the LEGA-C study, we investigate how 50% (t50) and 90% (t90) formation timescales depend on total stellar mass. We find good agreement between the observed and model timescales for the star-forming population Δ tSF ≲ 1 Gyr across the full mass range. In contrast, the observed age-mass correlation is weaker for the quiescent population compared to UniverseMachine models (ΔtQ ≲ 2 Gyr), especially at the high-mass end. This indicates continued star formation or additional processes in the most massive quiescent galaxies, a behavior not accounted for in the UniverseMachine model.

     
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  2. ABSTRACT

    Over the past year, JWST has uncovered galaxies at record-breaking distances up to z ∼ 13. The JWST UNCOVER (ultra-deep NIRSpec and NIRcam observations before the epoch of reionization) program has obtained ultra-deep multiwavelength NIRCam imaging of the massive galaxy cluster A2744 over ∼45 arcmin2 down to ∼29.5 AB mag. Here, we present a robust ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function derived through lensing clusters at 9 < z < 12. Using comprehensive end-to-end simulations, we account for all lensing effects and systematic uncertainties in deriving both the amplification factors and the effective survey volume. Our results confirm the intriguing excess of UV-bright galaxies (MUV <−20 AB mag) previously reported at z > 9 in recent JWST studies. In particular, a double power-law (DPL) describes better the bright end of the luminosity function compared to the classical Schechter form. The number density of these bright galaxies is 10–100 times larger than theoretical predictions and previous findings based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. Additionally, we measure a star formation rate density of ρSFR = 10−2.64 M⊙ yr−1 Mpc−3 at these redshifts, which is 4–10 times higher than galaxy formation models that assume a constant star formation efficiency. Future wide-area surveys and accurate modelling of lensing-assisted observations will reliably constrain both the bright and the dim end of the UV luminosity function at z > 9, which will provide key benchmarks for galaxy formation models.

     
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  3. Abstract

    We present the elemental abundances and ages of 19 massive quiescent galaxies atz∼ 1.4 andz∼ 2.1 from the Keck Heavy Metal Survey. The ultradeep LRIS and MOSFIRE spectra were modeled using a full-spectrum stellar population fitting code with variable abundance patterns. The galaxies have iron abundances between [Fe/H] = −0.5 and −0.1 dex, with typical values of −0.2 [−0.3] atz∼ 1.4 [z∼ 2.1]. We also find a tentativelogσv–[Fe/H] relation atz∼ 1.4. The magnesium-to-iron ratios span [Mg/Fe] = 0.1–0.6 dex, with typical values of 0.3 [0.5] dex atz∼ 1.4 [z∼ 2.1]. The ages imply formation redshifts ofzform= 2–8. Compared to quiescent galaxies at lower redshifts, we find that [Fe/H] was ∼0.2 dex lower atz= 1.4–2.1. We find no evolution in [Mg/Fe] out toz∼ 1.4, though thez∼ 2.1 galaxies are 0.2 dex enhanced compared toz= 0–0.7. A comparison of these results to a chemical evolution model indicates that galaxies at higher redshift form at progressively earlier epochs and over shorter star formation timescales, with thez∼ 2.1 galaxies forming the bulk of their stars over 150 Myr atzform∼ 4. This evolution cannot be solely attributed to an increased number of quiescent galaxies at later times; several Heavy Metal galaxies have extreme chemical properties not found in massive galaxies atz∼ 0.0–0.7. Thus, the chemical properties of individual galaxies must evolve over time. Minor mergers also cannot fully account for this evolution as they cannot increase [Fe/H], particularly in galaxy centers. Consequently, the buildup of massive quiescent galaxies sincez∼ 2.1 may require further mechanisms, such as major mergers and/or central star formation.

     
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  4. Abstract

    In this paper, we present the Heavy Metal Survey, which obtained ultradeep medium-resolution spectra of 21 massive quiescent galaxies at 1.3 <z< 2.3 with Keck/LRIS and MOSFIRE. With integration times of up to 16 hr per band per galaxy, we observe numerous Balmer and metal absorption lines in atmospheric windows. We successfully derive spectroscopic redshifts for all 21 galaxies, and for 19 we also measure stellar velocity dispersions (σv), ages, and elemental abundances, as detailed in an accompanying paper. Except for one emission-line active galactic nucleus, all galaxies are confirmed as quiescent through their faint or absent Hαemission and evolved stellar spectra. For most galaxies exhibiting faint Hα, elevated [Nii]/Hαsuggests a non-star-forming origin. We calculate dynamical masses (Mdyn) by combiningσvwith structural parameters obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope COSMOS(-DASH) survey and compare them with stellar masses (M*) derived using spectrophotometric modeling, considering various assumptions. For a fixed initial mass function (IMF), we observe a strong correlation betweenMdyn/M*andσv. This correlation may suggest that a varying IMF, with high-σvgalaxies being more bottom heavy, was already in place atz∼ 2. When implementing theσv-dependent IMF found in the cores of nearby early-type galaxiesandcorrecting for biases in our stellar mass and size measurements, we find a low scatter inMdyn/M*of 0.14 dex. However, these assumptions result in unphysical stellar masses, which exceed the dynamical masses by 34%. This tension suggests that distant quiescent galaxies do not simply grow inside-out into today’s massive early-type galaxies and the evolution is more complicated.

     
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  5. We present elemental abundance patterns (C, N, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, and Ni) for a population of 135 massive quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 0.7 with ultra-deep rest-frame optical spectroscopy drawn from the LEGA-C survey. We derive average ages and elemental abundances in four bins of stellar velocity dispersion (σv) ranging from 150–250 km s−1 using a full-spectrum hierarchical Bayesian model. The resulting elemental abundance measurements are precise to 0.05 dex. The majority of elements, as well as the total metallicity and stellar age, show a positive correlation with σv. Thus, the highest dispersion galaxies formed the earliest and are the most metal-rich. We find only mild or nonsignificant trends between [X/Fe] and σv, suggesting that the average star formation timescale does not strongly depend on velocity dispersion. To first order, the abundance patterns of the z ∼ 0.7 quiescent galaxies are strikingly similar to those at z ∼ 0. However, at the lowest-velocity dispersions, the z ∼ 0.7 galaxies have slightly enhanced N, Mg, Ti, and Ni abundance ratios and earlier formation redshifts than their z ∼ 0 counterparts. Thus, while the higher-mass quiescent galaxy population shows little evolution, the low-mass quiescent galaxies population has grown significantly over the past 6 Gyr. Finally, the abundance patterns of both z ∼ 0 and z ∼ 0.7 quiescent galaxies differ considerably from theoretical prediction based on a chemical evolution model, indicating that our understanding of the enrichment histories of these galaxies is still very limited. 
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  6. Abstract We present new Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) 3.6 and 4.5 μ m mosaics of three fields, E-COSMOS, DEEP2-F3, and ELAIS-N1. Our mosaics include both new IRAC observations as well as reprocessed archival data in these fields. These fields are part of the HSC-Deep grizy survey and have a wealth of additional ancillary data. The addition of these new IRAC mosaics is critical in allowing for improved photometric redshifts and stellar population parameters at cosmic noon and earlier epochs. The total area mapped by this work is ∼17 deg 2 with a mean integration time of ≈1200s, providing a median 5 σ depth of 23.7(23.3) at 3.6(4.5) μ m in AB. We perform SExtractor photometry both on the combined mosaics as well as the single-epoch mosaics taken ≈6 months apart. The resultant IRAC number counts show good agreement with previous studies. In combination with the wealth of existing and upcoming spectrophotometric data in these fields, our IRAC mosaics will enable a wide range of galactic evolution and AGN studies. With that goal in mind, we make the combined IRAC mosaics and coverage maps of these three fields publicly available. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 23, 2024
  7. Abstract

    We present elemental abundance patterns (C, N, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, and Ni) for a population of 135 massive quiescent galaxies atz∼ 0.7 with ultra-deep rest-frame optical spectroscopy drawn from the LEGA-C survey. We derive average ages and elemental abundances in four bins of stellar velocity dispersion (σv) ranging from 150–250 km s−1using a full-spectrum hierarchical Bayesian model. The resulting elemental abundance measurements are precise to 0.05 dex. The majority of elements, as well as the total metallicity and stellar age, show a positive correlation withσv. Thus, the highest dispersion galaxies formed the earliest and are the most metal-rich. We find only mild or nonsignificant trends between [X/Fe] andσv, suggesting that the average star formation timescale does not strongly depend on velocity dispersion. To first order, the abundance patterns of thez∼ 0.7 quiescent galaxies are strikingly similar to those atz∼ 0. However, at the lowest-velocity dispersions, thez∼ 0.7 galaxies have slightly enhanced N, Mg, Ti, and Ni abundance ratios and earlier formation redshifts than theirz∼ 0 counterparts. Thus, while the higher-mass quiescent galaxy population shows little evolution, the low-mass quiescent galaxies population has grown significantly over the past 6 Gyr. Finally, the abundance patterns of bothz∼ 0 andz∼ 0.7 quiescent galaxies differ considerably from theoretical prediction based on a chemical evolution model, indicating that our understanding of the enrichment histories of these galaxies is still very limited.

     
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  8. Abstract

    We explore the galaxy-halo connection information that is available in low-redshift samples from the early data release of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI). We model the halo occupation distribution (HOD) fromz= 0.1 to 0.3 using Survey Validation 3 (SV3; a.k.a., the One-Percent Survey) data of the DESI Bright Galaxy Survey. In addition to more commonly used metrics, we incorporate counts-in-cylinders (CiC) measurements, which drastically tighten HOD constraints. Our analysis is aided by the Python package,galtab, which enables the rapid, precise prediction of CiC for any HOD model available inhalotools. This methodology allows our Markov chains to converge with much fewer trial points, and enables even more drastic speedups due to its GPU portability. Our HOD fits constrain characteristic halo masses tightly and provide statistical evidence for assembly bias, especially at lower luminosity thresholds: the HOD of central galaxies inz∼ 0.15 samples with limiting absolute magnitudeMr< −20.0 andMr< −20.5 samples is positively correlated with halo concentration with a significance of 99.9% and 99.5%, respectively. Our models also favor positive central assembly bias for the brighterMr< −21.0 sample atz∼ 0.25 (94.8% significance), but there is no significant evidence for assembly bias with the same luminosity threshold atz∼ 0.15. We provide our constraints for each threshold sample’s characteristic halo masses, assembly bias, and other HOD parameters. These constraints are expected to be significantly tightened with future DESI data, which will span an area 100 times larger than that of SV3.

     
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  9. ABSTRACT

    We present a new parametric lens model for the massive galaxy cluster Abell 2744 based on new ultra-deep JWST imaging taken in the framework of the UNCOVER program. These observations constitute the deepest JWST images of a lensing cluster to date, adding to existing deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images and the recent JWST Early Release Science and Director’s Discretionary Time data taken for this field. The wide field of view of UNCOVER (∼45 arcmin2) extends beyond the cluster’s well-studied central core and reveals a spectacular wealth of prominent lensed features around two massive cluster sub-structures in the north and north-west, where no multiple images were previously known. We identify 75 new multiple images and candidates of 17 sources, 43 of which allow us, for the first time, to constrain the lensing properties and total mass distribution around these extended cluster structures using strong lensing (SL). Our model yields an effective Einstein radius of θE, main = 23.2 ± 2.3 arcsec for the main cluster core (for zs = 2), enclosing a mass of M(< θE, main) = (7.7 ± 1.1) × 1013 M⊙, and θE, NW = 13.1 ± 1.3 arcsec for the newly discovered north-western SL structure enclosing M(< θE, NW) = (2.2 ± 0.3) × 1013 M⊙. The northern clump is somewhat less massive with θE, N = 7.4 ± 0.7 arcsec enclosing M(< θE, N) = (0.8 ± 0.1) × 1013 M⊙. We find the northern sub-structures of Abell 2744 to broadly agree with the findings from weak lensing analyses and align with the filamentary structure found by these previous studies. Our model in particular reveals a large area of high magnification values between the various cluster structures, which will be paramount for lensed galaxy studies in the UNCOVER field. The model is made publicly available to accompany the first UNCOVER data release.

     
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  10. Abstract

    We present visual classifications of merger-induced tidal disturbances in 143M*∼ 1011Mpost-starburst galaxies atz∼ 0.7 identified in theSQuIGGLESample. This sample spectroscopically selects galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that have stopped their primary epoch of star formation within the past ∼500 Myr. Visual classifications are performed on Hyper Suprime-Cam imaging. We compare to a control sample of mass- and redshift-matched star-forming and quiescent galaxies from the Large Early Galaxy Census and find that post-starburst galaxies are more likely to be classified as disturbed than either category. This corresponds to a factor of3.61.3+2.9times the disturbance rate of older quiescent galaxies and2.1.73+1.9times the disturbance rate of star-forming galaxies. Assuming tidal features persist for ≲500 Myr, this suggests merging is coincident with quenching in a significant fraction of these post-starbursts. Galaxies with tidal disturbances are younger on average than undisturbed post-starburst galaxies in our sample, suggesting tidal features from a major merger may have faded over time. This may be exacerbated by the fact that, on average, the undisturbed subset is fainter, rendering low-surface-brightness tidal features harder to identify. However, the presence of 10 young (≲150 Myr since quenching) undisturbed galaxies suggests that major mergers are not the only fast physical mechanism that shut down the primary epoch of star formation in massive galaxies at intermediate redshift.

     
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