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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 31, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. This paper proposes a methodology to increase the lifetime of the central battery energy storage system (CBESS) in an islanded building-level DC microgrid (MG) and enhance the voltage quality of the system by employing the supercapacitor (SC) of electric vehicles (EVs) that utilize battery-SC hybrid energy storage systems. To this end, an adaptive filtration-based (FB) current-sharing strategy is proposed in the voltage feedback control loop of the MG that smooths the CBESS current to increase its lifetime by allocating a portion of the high-frequency current variations to the EV charger. The bandwidth of this filter is adjusted using a data-driven algorithm to guarantee that only the EV's SC absorbs the high-frequency current variations, thereby enabling the EV's battery energy storage system (BESS) to follow its standard constant current-constant voltage (CC-CV) charging profile. Therefore, the EV's SC can coordinate with the CBESS without impacting the charging profile of the EV's BESS. Also, a small-signal stability analysis is provided indicating that the proposed approach improves the marginal voltage stability of the DC MG leading to better transient response and higher voltage quality. Finally, the performance of the proposed EV charging is validated using MATLAB/Simulink and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 10, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  5. Voltage regulation, frequency restoration, and reactive/active power sharing are the crucial tasks of the microgrid's secondary control, especially in the islanding operating mode. Because sensors and communication links in a microgrid are subject to noise, it is of paramount value to design a noise-resilient secondary voltage and frequency control. This paper proposes a minimum variance control approach for the secondary control of AC microgrids that can effectively perform noise attenuation, voltage/frequency restoration, and reactive/active power sharing. To this end, the nonlinear generalized minimum variance (NGMV) control approach is introduced to the islanded microgrid's secondary control system. The effectiveness of the proposed control approach is verified by simulating two microgrid test systems in MATLAB. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 25, 2024
  6. Filtration-based (FB) power/current allocation of battery-supercapacitor (SC) hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs) is the most common approach in DC microgrid (MG) applications. In this approach, a low-pass or a high-pass filter is utilized to decompose the input power/current of HESS into high-frequency and low-frequency components and then assign the high-frequency parts to SC. Moreover, to avoid the state of charge violation (SoC) of SC, this approach requires a rule-based supervisory controller which may result in the discontinuous operation of SC. This paper first provides a small-signal stability analysis to investigate the impact of an FB current allocation system on the dynamic stability of an islanded DC MG in which a grid-forming HESS supplies a constant power load (CPL). Then, it shows that the continuous operation of SC is essential if the grid-forming HESS is loaded by large CPLs. To address this issue, this paper proposes a model predictive control (MPC) strategy that works in tandem with a high-pass filter to perform the current assignment between the battery and SC. This approach automatically restores the SoC of SC after sudden load changes and limits its SoC variation in a predefined range, so that ensure the continuous operation of SC. As a result, the proposed FB-MPC method indirectly enables the MG’s proportional-integral (PI) voltage controller to operate with higher gain values leading to better transient response and voltage quality. The performance of the proposed approach is then validated by simulating the system in MATLAB/Simulink. 
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  7. Microgrids voltage regulation is of particular importance during both grid-connected and islanded modes of operation. Especially, during the islanded mode, when the support from the upstream grid is lost, stable voltage regulation is vital for the reliable operation of critical loads. This paper proposes a robust and data-driven control approach for secondary voltage control of AC microgrids in the presence of uncertainties. To this end, unfalsified adaptive control (UAC) is utilized to select the best stabilizing controller from a set of pre-designed controllers with the minimum knowledge required from the microgrid. Two microgrid test systems are simulated in MATLAB to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method under different scenarios like load change and communication link failure. 
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  8. Abstract

    This paper addresses the cybersecurity of hierarchical control of AC microgrids with distributed secondary control. The false data injection (FDI) cyberattack is assumed to alter the operating frequency of inverter‐based distributed generators (DGs) in an islanded microgrid. For the microgrids consisting of the grid‐forming inverters with the secondary control operating in a distributed manner, the attack on one DG deteriorates not only the corresponding DG but also the other DGs that receive the corrupted information via the distributed communication network. To this end, an FDI attack detection algorithm based on a combination of Gaussian process regression and one‐class support vector machine (OC‐SVM) anomaly detection is introduced. This algorithm is unsupervised in the sense that it does not require labelled abnormal data for training which is difficult to collect. The Gaussian process model predicts the response of the DG, and its prediction error and estimated variances provide input to an OC‐SVM anomaly detector. This algorithm returns enhanced detection performance than the standalone OC‐SVM. The proposed cyberattack detector is trained and tested with the data collected from a 4 DG microgrid test model and is validated in both simulation and hardware‐in‐the‐loop testbeds.

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