skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Bouwens, Rychard"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.


    We present band 6 ALMA observations of a heavily obscured radio-loud (L1.4 GHz = 1025.4 W Hz−1) active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidate at zphot = 6.83 ± 0.06 found in the 1.5 deg2 COSMOS field. The ALMA data reveal detections of exceptionally strong [C ii]158 $\mu$m (z[C ii] = 6.8532) and underlying dust continuum emission from this object (COS-87259), where the [C ii] line luminosity, line width, and 158 $\mu$m continuum luminosity are comparable to those seen from z ∼ 7 sub-mm galaxies and quasar hosts. The 158 $\mu$m continuum detection suggests a total infrared luminosity of $9\times 10^{12}\, \mathrm{ L}_\odot$ with corresponding very large obscured star formation rate (1300 M⊙ yr−1) and dust mass ($2\times 10^9\, \mathrm{ M}_\odot$). The strong break seen between the VIRCam and IRAC photometry perhaps suggests that COS-87259 is an extremely massive reionization-era galaxy with $M_\ast \approx 1.7\times 10^{11}\, \mathrm{ M}_\odot$. Moreover, the MIPS, PACS, and SPIRE detections imply that this object harbours an AGN that is heavily obscured ($\tau _{_{\mathrm{9.7\,\mu m}}}=2.3$) with a bolometric luminosity of approximately $5\times 10^{13}\, \mathrm{ L}_\odot$. Such a very high AGN luminosity suggests that this object is powered by an ≈1.6 × 10$^9\, \mathrm{ M}_\odot$ black hole if accreting near the Eddington limit, and is effectively a highly obscured version of an extremely ultravioletmore »(UV)-luminous (M1450 ≈ −27.3) z ∼ 7 quasar. Notably, these z ∼ 7 quasars are an exceedingly rare population (∼0.001 deg−2), while COS-87259 was identified over a relatively small field. Future very wide area surveys with e.g. Roman and Euclid have the potential to identify many more extremely red yet UV-bright z ≳ 7 objects similar to COS-87259, providing richer insight into the occurrence of intense obscured star formation and supermassive black hole growth among this population.

    « less

    We report the identification of radio (0.144–3 GHz) and mid-, far-infrared, and sub-mm (24–850μm) emission at the position of one of 41 UV-bright ($\mathrm{M_{\mathrm{UV}}}^{ }\lesssim -21.25$) z ≃ 6.6–6.9 Lyman-break galaxy candidates in the 1.5 deg2 COSMOS field. This source, COS-87259, exhibits a sharp flux discontinuity (factor >3) between two narrow/intermediate bands at 9450 and 9700 Å and is undetected in all nine bands blueward of 9600 Å, as expected from a Lyman alpha break at z ≃ 6.8. The full multiwavelength (X-ray through radio) data of COS-87529 can be self-consistently explained by a very massive (M* = 1010.8 M⊙) and extremely red (rest-UV slope β = −0.59) z ≃ 6.8 galaxy with hyperluminous infrared emission (LIR = 1013.6 L⊙) powered by both an intense burst of highly obscured star formation (SFR ≈ 1800 M⊙ yr−1) and an obscured ($\tau _{_{\mathrm{9.7\mu m}}} = 7.7\pm 2.5$) radio-loud (L1.4 GHz ≈ 1025.4 W Hz−1) active galactic nucleus (AGN). The radio emission is compact (1.04 ± 0.12 arcsec) and exhibits an ultra-steep spectrum between 1.32 and 3 GHz ($\alpha =-1.57^{+0.22}_{-0.21}$) that flattens at lower frequencies ($\alpha = -0.86^{+0.22}_{-0.16}$ between 0.144 and 1.32 GHz), consistent with known z > 4 radio galaxies. We also demonstrate that COS-87259 may reside in a significant (11×) galaxymore »overdensity, as common for systems hosting radio-loud AGN. While we find that low-redshift solutions to the optical + near-infrared data are not preferred, a spectroscopic redshift will ultimately be required to establish the true nature of COS-87259 beyond any doubt. If confirmed to lie at z ≃ 6.8, the properties of COS-87259 would be consistent with a picture wherein AGN and highly obscured star formation activity are fairly common among very massive (M* > 1010 M⊙) reionization-era galaxies.

    « less

    We present new [${\rm O\, {\small III}}$] 88-$\mu \mathrm{{m}}$ observations of five bright z ∼ 7 Lyman-break galaxies spectroscopically confirmed by ALMA through [${\rm C\, {\small II}}$] 158 $\mu \mathrm{{m}}$, unlike recent [${\rm O\, {\small III}}$] detections where Lyman α was used. This nearly doubles the sample of Epoch of Reionization galaxies with robust (5σ) [${\rm C\, {\small II}}$] and [${\rm O\, {\small III}}$] detections. We perform a multiwavelength comparison with new deep HST images of the rest-frame UV, whose compact morphology aligns well with [${\rm O\, {\small III}}$] tracing ionized gas. In contrast, we find more spatially extended [${\rm C\, {\small II}}$] emission likely produced in neutral gas, as indicated by an [${\rm N\, {\small II}}$] 205-$\mu \mathrm{{m}}$ non-detection in one source. We find a correlation between the optical ${[{\rm O\, {\small III}}]}+ {\mathrm{H\,\beta }}$ equivalent width and [${\rm O\, {\small III}}$]/[${\rm C\, {\small II}}$], as seen in local metal-poor dwarf galaxies. cloudy models of a nebula of typical density harbouring a young stellar population with a high-ionization parameter adequately reproduce the observed lines. Surprisingly, however, our models fail to reproduce the strength of [${\rm O\, {\small III}}$] 88-$\mu \mathrm{{m}}$, unless we assume an α/Fe enhancement and near-solar nebular oxygenmore »abundance. On spatially resolved scales, we find [${\rm O\, {\small III}}$]/[${\rm C\, {\small II}}$] shows a tentative anticorrelation with infrared excess, LIR/LUV, also seen on global scales in the local Universe. Finally, we introduce the far-infrared spectral energy distribution fitting code mercurius to show that dust-continuum measurements of one source appear to favour a low dust temperature and correspondingly high dust mass. This implies a high stellar metallicity yield and may point towards the need of dust production or grain-growth mechanisms beyond supernovae.

    « less

    Recent work has shown that UV-luminous reionization-era galaxies often exhibit strong Lyman-alpha emission despite being situated at redshifts where the IGM is thought to be substantially neutral. It has been argued that this enhanced Ly α transmission reflects the presence of massive galaxies in overdense regions which power large ionized bubbles. An alternative explanation is that massive galaxies shift more of their Ly α profile to large velocities (relative to the systemic redshift) where the IGM damping wing absorption is reduced. Such a mass-dependent trend is seen at lower redshifts, but whether one exists at z ∼ 7 remains unclear owing to the small number of existing systemic redshift measurements in the reionization era. This is now changing with the emergence of [C ii]-based redshifts from ALMA. Here, we report MMT/Binospec Ly α spectroscopy of eight UV-bright (MUV ∼ −22) galaxies at z ≃ 7 selected from the ALMA REBELS survey. We detect Ly α in four of eight galaxies and use the [C ii] systemic redshifts to investigate the Ly α velocity profiles. The Ly α lines are significantly redshifted from systemic (average velocity offset = 223 km s–1) and broad (FWHM ≈ 300–650 km s−1), with two sources showing emission extending to ≈750 km s−1. We find that the broadest Ly α profiles aremore »associated with the largest [C ii] line widths, suggesting a potential link between the Ly α FWHM and the dynamical mass. Since Ly α photons at high velocities transmit efficiently through the z = 7 IGM, our data suggest that velocity profiles play a significant role in boosting the Ly α visibility of the most UV-luminous reionization-era galaxies.

    « less

    Cosmic dust is an essential component shaping both the evolution of galaxies and their observational signatures. How quickly dust builds up in the early Universe remains an open question that requires deep observations at (sub-)millimetre wavelengths to resolve. Here, we use Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations of 45 galaxies from the Reionization Era Bright Emission Line Survey (REBELS) and its pilot programs, designed to target [C ii] and dust emission in UV-selected galaxies at z ∼ 7, to investigate the dust content of high-redshift galaxies through a stacking analysis. We find that the typical fraction of obscured star formation fobs = SFRIR/SFRUV+IR depends on stellar mass, similar to what is observed at lower redshift, and ranges from fobs ≈ 0.3 − 0.6 for galaxies with log10(M⋆/M⊙) = 9.4–10.4. We further adopt the z ∼ 7 stellar mass function from the literature to extract the obscured cosmic star formation rate density (SFRD) from the REBELS survey. Our results suggest only a modest decrease in the SFRD between 3 ≲ z ≲ 7, with dust-obscured star formation still contributing ${\sim}30{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ at z ∼ 7. While we extensively discuss potential caveats, our analysis highlights the continued importance of dust-obscured star formation even well intomore »the epoch of reionization.

    « less

    We present specific star formation rates (sSFRs) for 40 ultraviolet (UV)-bright galaxies at z ∼ 7–8 observed as part of the Reionization Era Bright Emission Line Survey (REBELS) Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) large programme. The sSFRs are derived using improved star formation rate (SFR) calibrations and spectral energy distribution (SED)-based stellar masses, made possible by measurements of far-infrared (FIR) continuum emission and [C ii]-based spectroscopic redshifts. The median sSFR of the sample is $18_{-5}^{+7}$ Gyr−1, significantly larger than literature measurements lacking constraints in the FIR, reflecting the larger obscured SFRs derived from the dust continuum relative to that implied by the UV+optical SED. We suggest that such differences may reflect spatial variations in dust across these luminous galaxies, with the component dominating the FIR distinct from that dominating the UV. We demonstrate that the inferred stellar masses (and hence sSFRs) are strongly dependent on the assumed star formation history in reionization-era galaxies. When large sSFR galaxies (a population that is common at z > 6) are modelled with non-parametric star formation histories, the derived stellar masses can increase by an order of magnitude relative to constant star formation models, owing to the presence of a significant old stellar population thatmore »is outshined by the recent burst. The [C ii] line widths in the largest sSFR systems are often very broad, suggesting dynamical masses capable of accommodating an old stellar population suggested by non-parametric models. Regardless of these systematic uncertainties among derived parameters, we find that sSFRs increase rapidly toward higher redshifts for massive galaxies (9.6 < log (M*/M⊙) < 9.8), evolving as (1 + z)1.7 ± 0.3, broadly consistent with expectations from the evolving baryon accretion rates.

    « less
  7. ABSTRACT Reionization-era galaxies tend to exhibit weak Ly α emission, likely reflecting attenuation from an increasingly neutral IGM. Recent observations have begun to reveal exceptions to this picture, with strong Ly α emission now known in four of the most massive z = 7–9 galaxies in the CANDELS fields, all of which also exhibit intense [O iii]+H β emission (EW > 800 Å). To better understand why Ly α is anomalously strong in a subset of massive z ≃ 7–9 galaxies, we have initiated an MMT/Binospec survey targeting a larger sample (N = 22) of similarly luminous (≃1–6 L$^{\ast }_{\mathrm{UV}}$) z ≃ 7 galaxies selected over very wide-area fields (∼3 deg2). We confidently (>7σ) detect Ly α in 78 per cent (7/9) of galaxies with strong [O iii]+H β emission (EW > 800 Å) as opposed to only 8 per cent (1/12) of galaxies with more moderate (EW = 200–800 Å) [O iii]+H β. We argue that the higher Ly α EWs of the strong [O iii]+H β population likely reflect enhanced ionizing photon production efficiency owing to their large sSFRs (≳30 Gyr−1). We also find evidence that Ly α transmission from massive galaxies declines less rapidly over 6 < z < 7 than in low-mass lensed systems. In particular, our data suggest no strong evolution in Ly α transmission, consistent with a picturemore »wherein massive z ≃ 7 galaxies often reside in large ionized regions. We detect three closely separated (R = 1.7 physical Mpc) z ≃ 7 Ly α emitters in our sample, conceivably tracing a large ionized structure that is consistent with this picture. We detect tentative evidence for an overdensity in this region, implying a large ionizing photon budget in the surrounding volume.« less
  8. Abstract The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (ASPECS) Band 6 scan (212–272 GHz) covers potential [C ii ] emission in galaxies at 6 ≤ z ≤ 8 throughout a 2.9 arcmin 2 area. By selecting on known Ly α emitters (LAEs) and photometric dropout galaxies in the field, we perform targeted searches down to a 5 σ [C ii ] luminosity depth L [C II ] ∼ 2.0 × 10 8 L ⊙ , corresponding roughly to star formation rates (SFRs) of 10–20 M ⊙ yr −1 when applying a locally calibrated conversion for star-forming galaxies, yielding zero detections. While the majority of galaxies in this sample are characterized by lower SFRs, the resulting upper limits on [C ii ] luminosity in these sources are consistent with the current literature sample of targeted ALMA observations of z = 6–7 LAEs and Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs), as well as the locally calibrated relations between L [C ii ] and SFR—with the exception of a single [C ii ]-deficient, UV-luminous LBG. We also perform a blind search for [C ii ]-bright galaxies that may have been missed by optical selections, resulting in an upper limitmore »on the cumulative number density of [C ii ] sources with L [C II ] > 2.0 × 10 8 L ⊙ (5 σ ) to be less than 1.8 × 10 −4 Mpc −3 (90% confidence level). At this luminosity depth and volume coverage, we present an observed evolution of the [C ii ] luminosity function from z = 6–8 to z ∼ 0 by comparing the ASPECS measurement to literature results at lower redshift.« less