skip to main content


Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Brand, Michael"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Optical phased arrays (OPAs) which beam-steer in two dimensions (2D) are currently limited to grating row spacings well above a half wavelength. This gives rise to grating lobes along one axis which limit the field of view (FOV), introduce return signal ambiguity, and reduce the optical efficiency in lidar applications. We demonstrate a Vernier transceiver scheme which uses paired transmit and receive phased arrays with different row periodicities, leading to mismatched grating lobe angular spacings and only a single aligned pair of transmit and receive lobes. This permits a return signal from a target in the desired lobe to be efficiently coupled back into the receive OPA while back-scatter from the other grating lobes is rejected, removing the ambiguity. Our proposal goes beyond previously considered Vernier schemes in other domains like RF and sound, to enable adynamic Vernierwhere all beam directions are simultaneously Vernier aligned, and allow ultra-fast scanning, or multi-beam, operation with Vernier lobe suppression. We analyze two variants of grating lobe suppressing beam-steering configurations, one of which eliminates the FOV limitation, and find the conditions for optimal lobe suppression. We present the first, to the best of our knowledge, experimental demonstration of an OPA Vernier transceiver, including grating lobe suppression of 6.4 dB and beam steering across 5.5°. The demonstration is based on a pair of 2D-wavelength-steered serpentine OPAs. These results address the pervasive issue of grating lobes in integrated photonic lidar schemes, opening the way to larger FOVs and reduced complexity 2D beam-steering designs.

     
    more » « less
  2. We demonstrate a high-resolution, crossed-dispersion integrated photonic spectrometer capable of high-etendue, multimode operation. The first experimental single-mode design achieves record performance per volume with 1.5 GHz resolution and 13 THz band-width in a 0.5 mm2 footprint. 
    more » « less
  3. Active imaging and structured illumination originated in “bulk” optical systems: free-space beams controlled with lenses, spatial light modulators, gratings, and mirrors to structure the optical diffraction and direct the beams onto the target. Recently, optical phased arrays have been developed with the goal of replacing traditional bulk active imaging systems with integrated optical systems. In this paper, we demonstrate the first array of optical phased arrays forming a composite aperture. This composite aperture is used to implement a Fourier-based structured-illumination imaging system, where moving fringe patterns are projected on a target and a single integrating detector is used to reconstruct the spatial structure of the target from the time variation of the back-scattered light. We experimentally demonstrate proof-of-concept Fourier-basis imaging in 1D using a six-element array of optical phased arrays, which interfere pairwise to sample up to 11 different spatial Fourier components, and reconstruct a 1D delta-function target. This concept addresses a key complexity constraint in scaling up integrated photonic apertures by requiring onlyNelements in a sparse array to produce an image withN2resolvable spots.

     
    more » « less
  4. Integrated astrophotonic spectrometers are integrated variants of conventional free-space spectrometers that offer significantly reduced size, weight, and cost and immunity to alignment errors, and can be readily integrated with other astrophotonic instruments such as nulling interferometers. Current integrated dispersive astrophotonic spectrometers are one-dimensional devices such as arrayed waveguide gratings or planar echelle gratings. These devices have been limited to104resolving powers and<<#comment/>1000spectral bins due to having limited total optical delay paths and 1D detector array pixel densities. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a high-resolution and compact astrophotonic serpentine integrated grating (SIG) spectrometer design based on a 2D dispersive serpentine optical phased array. The SIG device combines a 5.2 cm long folded delay line with grating couplers to create a large optical delay path along two dimensions in a compact integrated device footprint. Analogous to free-space crossed-dispersion high-resolution spectrometers, the SIG spectrometer maps spectral content to a 2D wavelength-beam-steered folded-raster emission pattern focused onto a 2D detector array. We demonstrate a SIG spectrometer with∼<#comment/>100kresolving power and∼<#comment/>6750spectral bins, which are approximately an order of magnitude higher than previous integrated photonic designs that operate over a wide bandwidth, in a0.4mm2footprint. We measure a Rayleigh resolution of1.93±<#comment/>0.07GHzand an operational bandwidth from 1540 nm to 1650 nm. Finally, we discuss refinements of the SIG spectrometer that improve its resolution, bandwidth, and throughput. These results show that SIG spectrometer technology provides a path towards miniaturized, high-resolution spectrometers for applications in astronomy and beyond.

     
    more » « less
  5. Optical phased arrays (OPAs) implemented in integrated photonic circuits could enable a variety of 3D sensing, imaging, illumination, and ranging applications, and their convergence in new lidar technology. However, current integrated OPA approaches do not scale—in control complexity, power consumption, or optical efficiency—to the large aperture sizes needed to support medium- to long-range lidar. We present the serpentine OPA (SOPA), a new OPA concept that addresses these fundamental challenges and enables architectures that scale up to large apertures. The SOPA is based on a serially interconnected array of low-loss grating waveguides and supports fully passive, 2D wavelength-controlled beam steering. A fundamentally space-efficient design that folds the feed network into the aperture also enables scalable tiling of SOPAs into large apertures with a high fill-factor. We experimentally demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, the first SOPA using a 1450–1650 nm wavelength sweep to produce 16,500 addressable spots in a27×<#comment/>610array. We also demonstrate, for the first time, far-field interference of beams from two separate OPAs on a single silicon photonic chip, as an initial step towards long-range computational imaging lidar based on novel active aperture synthesis schemes.

     
    more » « less