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    Driven by the imminent need to rapidly process and classify millions of AGN spectra drawn from next generation astronomical facilities, we present a spectral fitting routine for Type 2 AGN spectra optimized for high volume processing, using the quasar spectral fitting library (qsfit). We analyse an optically selected sample of 813 luminous Type 2 AGN spectra at z < 0.83 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to qualify its performance. We report a median narrow line H α/H β Balmer decrement of 4.5 ± 0.8, alluding to the presence of dust in the narrow line region (NLR). We publish a specialized qsfit fitting routine for high signal-to-noise ratio spectra and general fitting routine for double peaked Type 2 AGN spectra applied on a subsample of 45 spectra from our parent sample. We report a median red and blue peak velocity separation of 390 ± 60 kms−1. No trend is found for red or blue peaks to exhibit systematically different luminosity or ionization properties. Emission line diagnostics show that the double peaks in all sources are illuminated by an AGN-powered ionizing continuum. Finally, we examine the morphology of host galaxies of our double peaked sample. We find double peaked Type 2 AGN reside in merging systemsmore »at a comparable frequency to single peaked AGN. This suggests that the double peaked AGN phenomenon is likely to have a bi-conical outflow origin in the majority of cases. We publicly release the code used for spectral analysis and produced catalogues used in this work.

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    We derive the evolution of the ultraviolet upturn colour from a sample of field luminous red galaxies at 0.3 < z < 0.7 with −24 < Mr < −21.5. No individual objects are securely detected, so we stack several hundred galaxies within absolute magnitude and redshift intervals. We find that the colour of the ultraviolet upturn (in observed NUV − i which is approximately equivalent to the classical FUV − V at the redshifts of our targets) does not change strongly with redshift to z = 0.7. This behaviour is similar to that observed in cluster ellipticals over this same mass range and at similar redshifts, and we speculate that the processes involved in the origin of the UV upturn are the same. The observations are most consistent with spectral synthesis models containing a fraction of a helium rich stellar population with abundances between 37 per cent and 42 per cent, although we cannot formally exclude a contribution due to residual star formation at the $\sim 0.5\, \mathrm{ per\,cent}$ level (however, this appears unlikely for cluster galaxies that are believed to be more quenched). This suggests that the ultraviolet upturn is a primordial characteristic of early-type galaxies at all redshifts and that anmore »unexpected nucleosynthesis channel may lead to nearly complete chemical evolution at early times.

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  3. ABSTRACT We present Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array observations of the brightest cluster galaxy Hydra-A, a nearby (z = 0.054) giant elliptical galaxy with powerful and extended radio jets. The observations reveal CO(1−0), CO(2–1), 13CO(2–1), CN(2–1), SiO(5–4), HCO+(1–0), HCO+(2–1), HCN(1–0), HCN(2–1), HNC(1–0), and H2CO(3–2) absorption lines against the galaxy’s bright and compact active galactic nucleus. These absorption features are due to at least 12 individual molecular clouds that lie close to the centre of the galaxy and have velocities of approximately −50 to +10 km s−1 relative to its recession velocity, where positive values correspond to inward motion. The absorption profiles are evidence of a clumpy interstellar medium within brightest cluster galaxies composed of clouds with similar column densities, velocity dispersions, and excitation temperatures to those found at radii of several kpc in the Milky Way. We also show potential variation in a ∼10 km s−1 wide section of the absorption profile over a 2 yr time-scale, most likely caused by relativistic motions in the hot spots of the continuum source that change the background illumination of the absorbing clouds.
  4. ABSTRACT We measure the 850-μm source densities of 46 candidate protoclusters selected from the Planck high-z catalogue (PHz) and the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS) that were followed up with Herschel-SPIRE and SCUBA-2. This paper aims to search for overdensities of 850-μm sources in order to select the fields that are most likely to be genuine protoclusters. Of the 46 candidate protoclusters, 25 have significant overdensities (>5 times the field counts), 11 have intermediate overdensities (3–5 times the field counts), and 10 have no overdensity (<3 times the field counts) of 850-μm sources. We find that the enhanced number densities are unlikely to be the result of sample variance. Compared with the number counts of another sample selected from Planck’s compact source catalogues, this [PHz + PCCS]-selected sample has a higher fraction of candidate protoclusters with significant overdensities, though both samples show overdensities of 850-μm sources above intermediate level. Based on the estimated star formation rate densities (SFRDs), we suggest that both samples can efficiently select protoclusters with starbursting galaxies near the redshift at which the global field SFRD peaks (2 < z < 3). Based on the confirmation of overdensities found here, future follow-up observations on other PHz targets may greatlymore »increase the number of genuine dusty star-forming galaxy-rich clusters/protoclusters.« less
  5. We present images obtained with LABOCA on the APEX telescope of a sample of 22 galaxies selected via their red Herschel SPIRE 250-, 350- and $500\textrm{-}\mu\textrm{m}$ colors. We aim to see if these luminous, rare and distant galaxies are signposting dense regions in the early Universe. Our $870\textrm{-}\mu\textrm{m}$ survey covers an area of $\approx0.8\,\textrm{deg}^2$ down to an average r.m.s. of $3.9\,\textrm{mJy beam}^{-1}$, with our five deepest maps going $\approx2\times$ deeper still. We catalog 86 DSFGs around our 'signposts', detected above a significance of $3.5\sigma$. This implies a $100\pm30\%$ over-density of $S_{870}>8.5\,\textrm{mJy}$ DSFGs, excluding our signposts, when comparing our number counts to those in 'blank fields'. Thus, we are $99.93\%$ confident that our signposts are pinpointing over-dense regions in the Universe, and $\approx95\%$ confident that these regions are over-dense by a factor of at least $\ge1.5\times$. Using template SEDs and SPIRE/LABOCA photometry we derive a median photometric redshift of $z=3.2\pm0.2$ for our signposts, with an interquartile range of $z=2.8\textrm{-}3.6$. We constrain the DSFGs likely responsible for this over-density to within $|\Delta z|\le0.65$ of their respective signposts. These 'associated' DSFGs are radially distributed within $1.6\pm0.5\,\textrm{Mpc}$ of their signposts, have median SFRs of $\approx(1.0\pm0.2)\times10^3\,M_{\odot}\,\textrm{yr}^{-1}$ (for a Salpeter stellar IMF) and median gas reservoirsmore »of $\sim1.7\times10^{11}\,M_{\odot}$. These candidate proto-clusters have average total SFRs of at least $\approx (2.3\pm0.5)\times10^3\,M_{\odot}\,\textrm{yr}^{-1}$ and space densities of $\sim9\times10^{-7}\,\textrm{Mpc}^{-3}$, consistent with the idea that their constituents may evolve to become massive ETGs in the centers of the rich galaxy clusters we see today.« less