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Electrochemical biosensors promise a simple method to measure analytes for both point-of-care diagnostics and continuous, wearable biomarker monitors. In a liquid environment, detecting the analyte of interest must compete with other solutes that impact the background current, such as redox-active molecules, conductivity changes in the biofluid, water electrolysis, and electrode fouling. Multiple methods exist to overcome a few of these challenges, but not a comprehensive solution. Presented here is a combined boron-doped diamond electrode and oil–membrane protection approach that broadly mitigates the impact of biofluid interferents without a biorecognition element. The oil–membrane blocks the majority of interferents in biofluids that are hydrophilic while permitting passage of important hydrophobic analytes such as hormones and drugs. The boron-doped diamond then suppresses water electrolysis current and maintains peak electrochemical performance due to the foulant-mitigation benefits of the oil–membrane protection. Results show up to a 365-fold reduction in detection limits using the boron-doped diamond electrode material alone compared with traditional gold in the buffer. Combining the boron-doped diamond material with the oil–membrane protection scheme maintained these detection limits while exposed to human serum for 18 h.more » « less
Chemical sensors based on solution‐processed 2D nanomaterials represent an extremely attractive approach toward scalable and low‐cost devices. Through the implementation of real‐time impedance spectroscopy and development of a three‐element circuit model, redox exfoliated MoS2nanoflakes demonstrate an ultrasensitive empirical detection limit of NO2gas at 1 ppb, with an extrapolated ultimate detection limit approaching 63 ppt. This sensor construct reveals a more than three orders of magnitude improvement from conventional direct current sensing approaches as the traditionally dominant interflake interactions are bypassed in favor of selectively extracting intraflake doping effects. This same approach allows for an all solution‐processed, flexible 2D sensor to be fabricated on a polyimide substrate using a combination of graphene contacts and drop‐casted MoS2nanoflakes, exhibiting similar sensitivity limits. Finally, a thermal annealing strategy is used to explore the tunability of the nanoflake interactions and subsequent circuit model fit, with a demonstrated sensitivity improvement of 2× with thermal annealing at 200 °C.