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  1. Abstract

    Despite the importance of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in galaxy evolution, accurate AGN identification is often challenging, as common AGN diagnostics can be confused by contributions from star formation and other effects (e.g., Baldwin–Phillips–Terlevich diagrams). However, one promising avenue for identifying AGNs is “coronal emission lines” (“CLs”), which are highly ionized species of gas with ionization potentials ≥100 eV. These CLs may serve as excellent signatures for the strong ionizing continuum of AGNs. To determine if CLs are in fact strong AGN tracers, we assemble and analyze the largest catalog of optical CL galaxies using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) catalog. We detect CL emission in 71 MaNGA galaxies, out of the 10,010 unique galaxies from the final MaNGA catalog, with ≥5σconfidence. In our sample, we measure [Nev]λ3347,λ3427, [Fevii]λ3586,λ3760,λ6086, and [Fex]λ6374 emission and crossmatch the CL galaxies with a catalog of AGNs that were confirmed with broad-line, X-ray, IR, and radio observations. We find that [Nev] emission, compared to [Fevii] and [Fex] emission, is best at identifying high-luminosity AGNs. Moreover, we find that the CL galaxies with the least dust extinction yield the most iron CL detections. We posit that themore »bulk of the iron CLs are destroyed by dust grains in the galaxies with the highest [Oiii] luminosities in our sample, and that AGNs in the galaxies with low [Oiii] luminosities are possibly too weak to be detected using traditional techniques.

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    We compare stellar mass surface density, metallicity, age, and line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles in massive ($M_*\ge 10^{10.5}\, \mathrm{M_\odot }$) present-day early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the MaNGA survey with simulated galaxies from the TNG100 simulation of the IllustrisTNG suite. We find an excellent agreement between the stellar mass surface density profiles of MaNGA and TNG100 ETGs, both in shape and normalization. Moreover, TNG100 reproduces the shapes of the profiles of stellar metallicity and age, as well as the normalization of velocity dispersion distributions of MaNGA ETGs. We generally also find good agreement when comparing the stellar profiles of central and satellite galaxies between MaNGA and TNG100. An exception is the velocity dispersion profiles of very massive ($M_*\gtrsim 10^{11.5}\, \mathrm{M_\odot }$) central galaxies, which, on average, are significantly higher in TNG100 than in MaNGA ($\approx 50\, \mathrm{km\, s^{-1}}$). We study the radial profiles of in situ and ex situ stars in TNG100 and discuss the extent to which each population contributes to the observed MaNGA profiles. Our analysis lends significant support to the idea that high-mass ($M_*\gtrsim 10^{11}\, \mathrm{M_\odot }$) ETGs in the present-day Universe are the result of a merger-driven evolution marked by major mergers that tend to homogenize themore »stellar populations of the progenitors in the merger remnant.

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  3. Abstract

    We present, for the first time, the relationship between local stellar mass surface density, Σ*, and N/O derived from SDSS-IV MaNGA data, using a sample of 792,765 high signal-to-noise ratio star-forming spaxels. Using a combination of phenomenological modeling and partial correlation analysis, we find that Σ*alone is insufficient to predict the N/O in MaNGA spaxels and that there is an additional dependence on the local star formation rate surface density, ΣSFR. This effect is a factor of 3 stronger than the dependence of 12+log(O/H) on ΣSFR. Surprisingly, we find that the local N/O scaling relations also depend on the total galaxy stellar mass at fixed Σ*and the galaxy size at fixed stellar mass. We find that more compact galaxies are more nitrogen rich, even when Σ*and ΣSFRare controlled for. We show that ∼50% of the variance of N/O is explained by the total stellar mass and size. Thus, the evolution of nitrogen in galaxies is set by more than just local effects and does not simply track the buildup of oxygen in galaxies. The precise form of the N/O–O/H relation is therefore sensitive to the sample of galaxies from which it is derived. This result casts doubt on themore »universal applicability of nitrogen-based strong-line metallicity indicators derived in the local universe.

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  4. Abstract We present 150 MHz, 1.4 GHz, and 3 GHz radio imaging (LoTSS, FIRST, and VLASS) and spatially resolved ionized gas characteristics (SDSS IV-MaNGA) for 140 local ( z < 0.1) early-type red geyser galaxies. These galaxies have a low star formation activity (with a star formation rate, SFR, ∼ 0.01 M ⊙ yr −1 ), but show unique extended patterns in spatially resolved emission-line maps that have been interpreted as large-scale ionized winds driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN). In this work, we confirm that red geysers host low-luminosity radio sources ( L 1.4GHz ∼ 10 22 WHz −1 ). Out of 42 radio-detected red geysers, 32 are spatially resolved in LoTSS and FIRST, with radio sizes varying between ∼5–25 kpc. Three sources have radio sizes exceeding 40 kpc. A majority display a compact radio morphology and are consistent with either low-power compact radio sources (FR0 galaxies) or radio-quiet quasars. They may be powered by small-scale AGN-driven jets that remain unresolved at the current 5″ resolution of radio data. The extended radio sources, not belonging to the “compact” morphological class, exhibit steeper spectra with a median spectral index of −0.67, indicating the dominance of lobed components. The red geysersmore »hosting extended radio sources also have the lowest specific SFRs, suggesting they either have a greater impact on the surrounding interstellar medium or are found in more massive halos on average. The degree of alignment of the ionized wind cone and the extended radio features are either 0° or 90°, indicating possible interaction between the interstellar medium and the central radio AGN.« less
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  6. Evans, Christopher J. ; Bryant, Julia J. ; Motohara, Kentaro (Ed.)
    Since the start of science operations in 1993, the twin 10-meter W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) telescopes have continued to maximize their scientific impact and to produce transformative discoveries that keep the observing community on the frontiers of astronomical research. Upgraded capabilities and new instrumentation are provided though collaborative partnerships with Caltech, the University of California, and the University of Hawaii instrument development teams, as well as industry and other organizations. This paper summarizes the performance of recently commissioned infrastructure projects, technology upgrades, and new additions to the suite of observatory instrumentation. We also provide a status of projects currently in design or development phases and, since we keep our eye on the future, summarize projects in exploratory phases that originate from our 2022 strategic plan developed in collaboration with our science community to adapt and respond to evolving science needs.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 29, 2023
  7. ABSTRACT Using deep images from the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey and taking advantage of its unprecedented weak lensing capabilities, we reveal a remarkably tight connection between the stellar mass distribution of massive central galaxies and their host dark matter halo mass. Massive galaxies with more extended stellar mass distributions tend to live in more massive dark matter haloes. We explain this connection with a phenomenological model that assumes, (1) a tight relation between the halo mass and the total stellar content in the halo, (2) that the fraction of in situ and ex situ mass at r <10 kpc depends on halo mass. This model provides an excellent description of the stellar mass functions (SMFs) of total stellar mass ($M_{\star }^{\mathrm{max}}$) and stellar mass within inner 10 kpc ($M_{\star }^{10}$) and also reproduces the HSC weak lensing signals of massive galaxies with different stellar mass distributions. The best-fitting model shows that halo mass varies significantly at fixed total stellar mass (as much as 0.4 dex) with a clear dependence on $M_{\star }^{10}$. Our two-parameter $M_{\star }^{\mathrm{max}}$–$M_{\star }^{10}$ description provides a more accurate picture of the galaxy–halo connection at the high-mass end than the simple stellar–halo mass relation (SHMR) and opens a new windowmore »to connect the assembly history of haloes with those of central galaxies. The model also predicts that the ex situ component dominates the mass profiles of galaxies at r < 10 kpc for log M⋆ ≥ 11.7. The code used for this paper is available online« less