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  1. Abstract Convergence to equilibrium of underdamped Langevin dynamics is studied under general assumptions on the potential U allowing for singularities. By modifying the direct approach to convergence in L 2 pioneered by Hérau and developed by Dolbeault et al , we show that the dynamics converges exponentially fast to equilibrium in the topologies L 2 (d μ ) and L 2 ( W * d μ ), where μ denotes the invariant probability measure and W * is a suitable Lyapunov weight. In both norms, we make precise how the exponential convergence rate depends on the friction parameter γ in Langevin dynamics, by providing a lower bound scaling as min( γ , γ −1 ). The results hold for usual polynomial-type potentials as well as potentials with singularities such as those arising from pairwise Lennard-Jones interactions between particles.
  2. Abstract Cantor sets are constructed from iteratively removing sections of intervals. This process yields a cumulative distribution function (CDF), constructed from the invariant Borel probability measure associated with their iterated function systems. Under appropriate assumptions, we identify sampling schemes of such CDFs, meaning that the underlying Cantor set can be reconstructed from sufficiently many samples of its CDF. To this end, we prove that two Cantor sets have almost-nowhere intersection with respect to their corresponding invariant measures.