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Creators/Authors contains: "Cao, Ke"

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  1. Abstract

    The life history, distribution and diversity of fishes are largely influenced by environmental salinity. Changes in salinity affect a range of physiological processes including metabolism, nutrition, reproduction and growth. Therefore, fish can be conditioned to environmental parameters most suitable for production, where distinct traits are optimised through species‐specific manipulation of salinities. The primary purpose of this review is to summarise the existing literature on the salinity tolerance of aquacultured fish. The various experimental approaches for determining salinity tolerance are compared, along with summarised information for key species employed in aquaculture, including their native distributions, life history stage and optimal salinity for survival and growth. The implications for production were assessed by considering the effects of salinity on growth, reproduction, management, disease mitigation and marketability.

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  2. The environment has constantly shaped plant genomes, but the genetic bases underlying how plants adapt to environmental influences remain largely unknown. We constructed a high-density genomic variation map of 263 geographically representative peach landraces and wild relatives. A combination of whole-genome selection scans and genome-wide environmental association studies (GWEAS) was performed to reveal the genomic bases of peach adaptation to diverse climates. A total of 2092 selective sweeps that underlie local adaptation to both mild and extreme climates were identified, including 339 sweeps conferring genomic pattern of adaptation to high altitudes. Using genome-wide environmental association studies (GWEAS), a total of 2755 genomic loci strongly associated with 51 specific environmental variables were detected. The molecular mechanism underlying adaptive evolution of high drought, strong UVB, cold hardiness, sugar content, flesh color, and bloom date were revealed. Finally, based on 30 yr of observation, a candidate gene associated with bloom date advance, representing peach responses to global warming, was identified. Collectively, our study provides insights into molecular bases of how environments have shaped peach genomes by natural selection and adds candidate genes for future studies on evolutionary genetics, adaptation to climate changes, and breeding. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Background Genome structural variations (SVs) have been associated with key traits in a wide range of agronomically important species; however, SV profiles of peach and their functional impacts remain largely unexplored. Results Here, we present an integrated map of 202,273 SVs from 336 peach genomes. A substantial number of SVs have been selected during peach domestication and improvement, which together affect 2268 genes. Genome-wide association studies of 26 agronomic traits using these SVs identify a number of candidate causal variants. A 9-bp insertion in Prupe.4G186800 , which encodes a NAC transcription factor, is shown to be associated with early fruit maturity, and a 487-bp deletion in the promoter of PpMYB10.1 is associated with flesh color around the stone. In addition, a 1.67 Mb inversion is highly associated with fruit shape, and a gene adjacent to the inversion breakpoint, PpOFP1 , regulates flat shape formation. Conclusions The integrated peach SV map and the identified candidate genes and variants represent valuable resources for future genomic research and breeding in peach. 
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  4. Abstract

    Poly(ether imide) (PEI) from polycondensation of 2,2‐bis[4‐(3,4‐dicarboxyphenoxy) phenyl] propane dianhydride (BPADA) andm‐phenylenediamine (mPD) is a type of high‐temperature engineering thermoplastics that have high glass transition temperature and outstanding mechanical properties. Owing to its wide use in many fields including automotive, aircraft, and electronics, the research of PEI has surged in the last few decades. As science and technology continue to progress rapidly, there is a growing demand for PEIs with better properties. Although a few approaches have successfully improved the properties of PEI, it is recognized that these approaches require complex procedures and are uneconomical. Contrastingly, end‐group modification of PEI is highly effective, simple, and economical. Over the last few years, our group has extensively studied the methods for improving the properties of PEI through end‐group modification. The end‐group moieties and polymer blocks introduce multiple hydrogen bonding, electrostatics, and microphase separation to PEI. In this article, we first classify the end groups based on their characteristics. Then, we compare their effects on the properties of PEIs, including thermal, rheological, mechanical, optical, flame‐retardant, and morphological, and discuss the roots of these effects. The in‐depth comparisons and discussion generate principles to guide the synthesis of PEIs with tailored properties by modifying the end groups. This timely article will provide insights into the synthesis of other novel high‐temperature polymers and entice endeavors to develop novel end groups.

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  5. null (Ed.)