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  1. ABSTRACT The infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of main-sequence galaxies in the early Universe (z > 4) is currently unconstrained as IR continuum observations are time-consuming and not feasible for large samples. We present Atacama Large Millimetre Array Band 8 observations of four main-sequence galaxies at z ∼ 5.5 to study their IR SED shape in detail. Our continuum data (rest-frame 110 $\rm \mu m$, close to the peak of IR emission) allows us to constrain luminosity-weighted dust temperatures and total IR luminosities. With data at longer wavelengths, we measure for the first time the emissivity index at these redshifts to provide more robust estimates of molecular gas masses based on dust continuum. The Band 8 observations of three out of four galaxies can only be reconciled with optically thin emission redward of rest-frame $100\, {\rm \mu m}$. The derived dust peak temperatures at z ∼ 5.5 ($30\!-\!43\, {\rm K}$) are elevated compared to average local galaxies, however, $\sim 10\, {\rm K}$ below what would be predicted from an extrapolation of the trend at z < 4. This behaviour can be explained by decreasing dust abundance (or density) towards high redshifts, which would cause the IR SED at the peakmore »to be more optically thin, making hot dust more visible to the external observer. From the $850{\hbox{-}}{\rm \mu m}$ dust continuum, we derive molecular gas masses between 1010 and $10^{11}\, {\rm M_{\odot }}$ and gas fractions (gas over total mass) of $30\!-\!80{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ (gas depletion times of $100\!-\!220\, {\rm Myr}$). All in all, our results provide a first measured benchmark SED to interpret future millimetre observations of normal, main-sequence galaxies in the early Universe.« less
  2. ABSTRACT We simulate the scientific performance of the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope High Latitude Survey (HLS) on dark energy and modified gravity. The 1.6-yr HLS Reference survey is currently envisioned to image 2000 deg2 in multiple bands to a depth of ∼26.5 in Y, J, H and to cover the same area with slit-less spectroscopy beyond z = 3. The combination of deep, multiband photometry and deep spectroscopy will allow scientists to measure the growth and geometry of the Universe through a variety of cosmological probes (e.g. weak lensing, galaxy clusters, galaxy clustering, BAO, Type Ia supernova) and, equally, it will allow an exquisite control of observational and astrophysical systematic effects. In this paper, we explore multiprobe strategies that can be implemented, given the telescope’s instrument capabilities. We model cosmological probes individually and jointly and account for correlated systematics and statistical uncertainties due to the higher order moments of the density field. We explore different levels of observational systematics for the HLS survey (photo-z and shear calibration) and ultimately run a joint likelihood analysis in N-dim parameter space. We find that the HLS reference survey alone can achieve a standard dark energy FoM of >300 when including all probes. This assumes no information frommore »external data sets, we assume a flat universe however, and includes realistic assumptions for systematics. Our study of the HLS reference survey should be seen as part of a future community-driven effort to simulate and optimize the science return of the Roman Space Telescope.« less
  3. ABSTRACT We explore synergies between the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope and the Vera Rubin Observatory’s Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST). Specifically, we consider scenarios where the currently envisioned survey strategy for the Roman Space Telescope’s High Latitude Survey (HLS reference), i.e. 2000 deg2 in four narrow photometric bands is altered in favour of a strategy of rapid coverage of the LSST area (to full LSST depth) in one band. We find that in only five months, a survey in the W-band can cover the full LSST survey area providing high-resolution imaging for >95 per cent of the LSST Year 10 gold galaxy sample. We explore a second, more ambitious scenario where the Roman Space Telescope spends 1.5 yr covering the LSST area. For this second scenario, we quantify the constraining power on dark energy equation-of-state parameters from a joint weak lensing and galaxy clustering analysis. Our survey simulations are based on the Roman Space Telescope exposure-time calculator and redshift distributions from the CANDELS catalogue. Our statistical uncertainties account for higher order correlations of the density field, and we include a wide range of systematic effects, such as uncertainties in shape and redshift measurements, and modelling uncertainties of astrophysical systematics, such asmore »galaxy bias, intrinsic galaxy alignment, and baryonic physics. We find a significant increase in constraining power for the joint LSST + HLS wide survey compared to LSST Y10 (FoMHLSwide = 2.4 FoMLSST) and compared to LSST + HLS (FoMHLSwide = 5.5 FoMHLSref).« less
  4. We present the first [C II] 158 μ m luminosity function (LF) at z  ∼ 5 from a sample of serendipitous lines detected in the ALMA Large Program to INvestigate [C II] at Early times (ALPINE). A study of the 118 ALPINE pointings revealed several serendipitous lines. Based on their fidelity, we selected 14 lines for the final catalog. According to the redshift of their counterparts, we identified eight out of 14 detections as [C II] lines at z  ∼ 5, along with two as CO transitions at lower redshifts. The remaining four lines have an elusive identification in the available catalogs and we considered them as [C II] candidates. We used the eight confirmed [C II] and the four [C II] candidates to build one of the first [C II] LFs at z  ∼ 5. We found that 11 out of these 12 sources have a redshift very similar to that of the ALPINE target in the same pointing, suggesting the presence of overdensities around the targets. Therefore, we split the sample in two (a “clustered” and “field” subsample) according to their redshift separation and built two separate LFs. Our estimates suggest that there could be an evolution of the [C II]more »LF between z  ∼ 5 and z  ∼ 0. By converting the [C II] luminosity to the star-formation rate, we evaluated the cosmic star-formation rate density (SFRD) at z  ∼ 5. The clustered sample results in a SFRD ∼10 times higher than previous measurements from UV–selected galaxies. On the other hand, from the field sample (likely representing the average galaxy population), we derived a SFRD ∼1.6 higher compared to current estimates from UV surveys but compatible within the errors. Because of the large uncertainties, observations of larger samples will be necessary to better constrain the SFRD at z  ∼ 5. This study represents one of the first efforts aimed at characterizing the demography of [C II] emitters at z  ∼ 5 using a mm selection of galaxies.« less
  5. We report the serendipitous discovery of a dusty, starbursting galaxy at z=5.667 (called CRLE hereafter), in close physical association to the "normal" Main Sequence galaxy HZ10 at z=5.654. CRLE was identified by detection of [CII], [NII] and CO(2-1) line emission, making it the highest redshift, most luminous starburst in the COSMOS field. This massive, dusty galaxy appears to be forming stars at a rate of at least 1500$\,M_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ in a compact region only ~3 kpc in diameter. The dynamical and dust emission properties of CRLE suggest an ongoing merger driving the starburst, in a potentially intermediate stage relative to other known dusty galaxies at the same epoch. The ratio of [CII] to [NII] may suggest that an important contribution to the [CII] emission comes from a diffuse ionized gas component, which could be more extended than the dense, starbursting gas. CRLE appears to be located in a significant galaxy overdensity at the same redshift, potentially associated with a large scale cosmic structure recently identified in a Lyman Alpha Emitter survey. This overdensity suggests that CRLE and HZ10 reside in a protocluster environment, offering the tantalizing opportunity to study the effect of a massive starburst on protocluster star formation. Ourmore »findings support the interpretation that a significant fraction of the earliest galaxy formation may occur from the inside-out, within the central regions of the most massive halos, while rapidly evolving into the massive galaxy clusters observed in the local Universe.« less