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  1. Abstract

    Opioid use disorder is one of the most pressing public health problems of our time. Mobile health tools, including wearable sensors, have great potential in this space, but have been underutilized. Of specific interest are digital biomarkers, or end-user generated physiologic or behavioral measurements that correlate with health or pathology. The current manuscript describes a longitudinal, observational study of adult patients receiving opioid analgesics for acute painful conditions. Participants in the study are monitored with a wrist-worn E4 sensor, during which time physiologic parameters (heart rate/variability, electrodermal activity, skin temperature, and accelerometry) are collected continuously. Opioid use events are recorded via electronic medical record and self-report. Three-hundred thirty-nine discreet dose opioid events from 36 participant are analyzed among 2070 h of sensor data. Fifty-one features are extracted from the data and initially compared pre- and post-opioid administration, and subsequently are used to generate machine learning models. Model performance is compared based on individual and treatment characteristics. The best performing machine learning model to detect opioid administration is a Channel-Temporal Attention-Temporal Convolutional Network (CTA-TCN) model using raw data from the wearable sensor. History of intravenous drug use is associated with better model performance, while middle age, and co-administration of non-narcotic analgesia or sedative drugs are associated with worse model performance. These characteristics may be candidate input features for future opioid detection model iterations. Once mature, this technology could provide clinicians with actionable data on opioid use patterns in real-world settings, and predictive analytics for early identification of opioid use disorder risk.

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  2. Opioid use disorder is a medical condition with major social and economic consequences. While ubiquitous physiological sensing technologies have been widely adopted and extensively used to monitor day-to-day activities and deliver targeted interventions to improve human health, the use of these technologies to detect drug use in natural environments has been largely underexplored. The long-term goal of our work is to develop a mobile technology system that can identify high-risk opioid-related events (i.e., development of tolerance in the setting of prescription opioid use, return-to-use events in the setting of opioid use disorder) and deploy just-in-time interventions to mitigate the risk of overdose morbidity and mortality. In the current paper, we take an initial step by asking a crucial question: Can opioid use be detected using physiological signals obtained from a wrist-mounted sensor? Thirty-six individuals who were admitted to the hospital for an acute painful condition and received opioid analgesics as part of their clinical care were enrolled. Subjects wore a noninvasive wrist sensor during this time (1-14 days) that continuously measured physiological signals (heart rate, skin temperature, accelerometry, electrodermal activity, and interbeat interval). We collected a total of 2070 hours (≈ 86 days) of physiological data and observed a total of 339 opioid administrations. Our results are encouraging and show that using a Channel-Temporal Attention TCN (CTA-TCN) model, we can detect an opioid administration in a time-window with an F1-score of 0.80, a specificity of 0.77, sensitivity of 0.80, and an AUC of 0.77. We also predict the exact moment of administration in this time-window with a normalized mean absolute error of 8.6% and R2 coefficient of 0.85. 
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