skip to main content


The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Thursday, June 13 until 2:00 AM ET on Friday, June 14 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Caselden, Dan"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    WISEA J153429.75−104303.3 (a.k.a. “The Accident”) is a brown dwarf with unique observational properties unlike those of any other known (sub)stellar object. It is thought to be a very cold, metal-poor brown dwarf, and potentially the first identified Y-type subdwarf. Although WISEA J153429.75−104303.3 is extremely faint atλ ∼ 1.25 μm, low-temperature atmosphere models suggest thatY-band flux could increase dramatically relative toJ-band as metallicity decreases from solar. We therefore obtained deepY-band follow-up imaging of WISEA J153429.75−104303.3 with the Dark Energy Camera, and report a resultingY-band limit ofY > 21.79 mag (Vega, 5σ).

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Y dwarfs, the coolest known spectral class of brown dwarfs, overlap in mass and temperature with giant exoplanets, providing unique laboratories for studying low-temperature atmospheres. However, only a fraction of Y dwarf candidates have been spectroscopically confirmed. We present Keck/NIRES near-infrared spectroscopy of the nearby (d≈ 6–8 pc) brown dwarf CWISE J105512.11+544328.3. Although its near-infrared spectrum aligns best with the Y0 standard in theJband, no standard matches well across the fullYJHKwavelength range. The CWISE J105512.11+544328.3 NH3-H= 0.427 ± 0.0012 and CH4-J= 0.0385 ± 0.0007 absorption indices and absolute Spitzer [4.5] magnitude of 15.18 ± 0.22 are also indicative of an early-Y dwarf rather than a late-T dwarf. CWISE J105512.11+544328.3 additionally exhibits the bluest Spitzer [3.6]−[4.5] color among all spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs. Despite this anomalously blue Spitzer color given its low luminosity, CWISE J105512.11+544328.3 does not show other clear kinematic or spectral indications of low metallicity. Atmospheric model comparisons yield a log(g) ≤ 4.5 andTeff≈ 500 ± 150 K for this source. We classify CWISE J105512.11+544328.3 as a Y0 (pec) dwarf, adding to the remarkable diversity of the Y-type population. JWST spectroscopy would be crucial to understanding the origin of this Y dwarf’s unusual preference for low-gravity models and blue 3–5μm color.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    We present the analysis of two unusually red L dwarfs, CWISE J075554.14−325956.3 (W0755−3259) and CWISE J165909.91−351108.5 (W1659−3511), confirmed by their newly obtained near-infrared spectra collected with the TripleSpec4 spectrograph on the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope. We classify W0755−3259 as an L7 very low-gravity dwarf, exhibiting extreme redness with a characteristic peakedH-band and spectral indices typical of low-gravity late-type L dwarfs. We classify W1659-3511 as a red L7 field-gravity dwarf, with a more roundedH-band peak and spectral indices that support a normal gravity designation. W1659−3511 is noticeably fainter than W0755−3259, and the roundedH-band of W1659−3511 may be evidence of CH4absorption.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    We present spectroscopic confirmation of a nearby L dwarf pair, CWISE J061741.79+194512.8AB. Keck/NIRES near-infrared spectroscopy shows that the pair is composed of an L2 dwarf primary and an L4 dwarf secondary. High resolution spectroscopy of the combined light system with Keck/NIRSPEC yields a radial velocity of 29.2 ± 0.3 km s−1and a projected rotational velocityvsini=41.62.6+2.7km s−1. Our spectrophotometric distance estimate places the system at 28.2 ± 5.7 pc, significantly more distant than originally estimated in Kirkpatrick et al. The angular separation of the components is 1.″31 ± 0.″14, corresponding to a projected physical separation of 37 ± 8 au.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    We present the discovery of CWISE J050626.96+073842.4 (CWISE J0506+0738), an L/T transition dwarf with extremely red near-infrared colors discovered through the Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 citizen science project. Photometry from UKIRT and CatWISE give a (JK)MKOcolor of 2.97 ± 0.03 mag and aJMKO− W2 color of 4.93 ± 0.02 mag, making CWISE J0506+0738 the reddest known free-floating L/T dwarf in both colors. We confirm the extremely red nature of CWISE J0506+0738 using Keck/NIRES near-infrared spectroscopy and establish that it is a low-gravity, late-type L/T transition dwarf. The spectrum of CWISE J0506+0738 shows possible signatures of CH4absorption in its atmosphere, suggesting a colder effective temperature than other known, young, red L dwarfs. We assign a preliminary spectral type for this source of L8γ–T0γ. We tentatively find that CWISE J0506+0738 is variable at 3–5μm based on multiepoch WISE photometry. Proper motions derived from follow-up UKIRT observations combined with a radial velocity from our Keck/NIRES spectrum and a photometric distance estimate indicate a strong membership probability in theβPic moving group. A future parallax measurement will help to establish a more definitive moving group membership for this unusual object.

    more » « less
  6. Abstract We present the discovery of CWISE J052306.42−015355.4, which was found as a faint, significant proper-motion object (0.″52 ± 0.″08 yr −1 ) using machine-learning tools on the unWISE re-processing of time series images from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Using the CatWISE2020 W1 and W2 magnitudes along with a J -band detection from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey, the location of CWISE J052306.42−015355.4 on the W1 − W2 versus J − W2 diagram best matches that of other known, or suspected, extreme T subdwarfs. As there is currently very little knowledge concerning extreme T subdwarfs we estimate a rough distance of ≤68 pc, which results in a tangential velocity of ≤167 km s −1 , both of which are tentative. A measured parallax is greatly needed to test these values. We also estimate a metallicity of −1.5 < [M/H] < −0.5 using theoretical predictions. 
    more » « less
  7. Abstract We have used data from the UKIRT Hemisphere Survey to search for substellar members of the Hyades cluster. Our search recovered several known substellar Hyades members, and two known brown dwarfs that we suggest may be members based on a new kinematic analysis. We uncovered thirteen new substellar Hyades candidates, and obtained near-infrared follow-up spectroscopy of each with IRTF/SpeX. Six candidates with spectral types between M7 and L0 are ruled out as potential members based on their photometric distances (≳100 pc). The remaining seven candidates, with spectral types between L5 and T4, are all potential Hyades members, with five showing strong membership probabilities based on BANYAN Σ and a convergent point analysis. Distances and radial velocities are still needed to confirm Hyades membership. If confirmed, these would be some of the lowest mass free-floating members of the Hyades yet known, with masses as low as ∼30 M Jup . An analysis of all known substellar Hyades candidates shows evidence that the full extent of the Hyades has yet to be probed for low-mass members, and more would likely be recovered with deeper photometric and astrometric investigations. 
    more » « less
  8. null (Ed.)
  9. Abstract In an effort to identify nearby and unusual cold objects in the solar neighborhood, we searched for previously unidentified moving objects using CatWISE2020 proper motion data combined with machine learning methods. We paired the motion candidates with their counterparts in 2MASS, UHS, and VHS. Then we searched for white dwarf, brown dwarf, and subdwarf outliers on the resulting color–color diagrams. This resulted in the discovery of 16 new dwarfs, including 2 nearby M dwarfs (<30 pc), a possible young L dwarf, a high-motion early-T dwarf, and 3 later-T dwarfs. This research represents a step forward in completing the census of the Sun’s neighbors. 
    more » « less
  10. Abstract

    We present WDJ220838.73+454434.04 (hereafter WD2208+454), a wide, co-moving white dwarf companion to the eclipsing binary system, AR Lacertae. The companion was discovered through the Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 citizen science collaboration. It has a separation of 21.″9 on the sky from the central eclipsing pair, translating to a projected separation of ∼930 au. We present a review of the physical properties and orbital parameters of this new addition to the system.

    more » « less