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  1. Abstract

    The physiological asymmetry between daughters of a mother bacterium is produced by the inheritance of either old poles, carrying non-genetic damage, or newly synthesized poles. However, as bacteria display long-term growth stability leading to physiological immortality, there is controversy on whether asymmetry corresponds to aging. Here we show that deterministic age structure landscapes emerge from physiologically immortal bacterial lineages. Through single-cell microscopy and microfluidic techniques, we demonstrate that aging and rejuvenating bacterial lineages reach two distinct states of growth equilibria. These equilibria display stabilizing properties, which we quantified according to the compensatory trajectories of continuous lineages throughout generations. Finally, we show that the physiological asymmetry between aging and rejuvenating lineages produces complex age structure landscapes, resulting in a deterministic phenotypic heterogeneity that is neither an artifact of starvation nor a product of extrinsic damage. These findings indicate that physiological immortality and cellular aging can both be manifested in single celled organisms.

  2. The BICEP/Keck series of experiments target the Cosmic Microwave Background at degree-scale resolution from the South Pole. Over the next few years, the "Stage-3" BICEP Array (BA) telescope will improve the program's frequency coverage and sensitivity to primordial B-mode polarization by an order of magnitude. The first receiver in the array, BA1, began observing at 30/40 GHz in early 2020. The next two receivers, BA2 and BA3, are currently being assembled and will map the southern sky at frequencies ranging from 95 GHz to 150 GHz. Common to all BA receivers is a refractive, on-axis, cryogenic optical design that focuses microwave radiation onto a focal plane populated with antenna-coupled bolometers. High-performance antireflective coatings up to 760 mm in aperture are needed for each element in the optical chain, and must withstand repeated thermal cycles down to 4 K. Here we present the design and fabrication of the 30/40 GHz anti-reflection coatings for the recently deployed BA1 receiver, then discuss laboratory measurements of their reflectance. We review the lamination method for these single- and dual-layer plastic coatings with indices matched to various polyethylene, nylon and alumina optics. We also describe ongoing efforts to optimize coatings for the next BA cryostats, whichmore »may inform technological choices for future Small-Aperture Telescopes of the CMB "Stage 4" experiment.« less
  3. Zmuidzinas, Jonas ; Gao, Jian-Rong (Ed.)
  4. Zmuidzinas, Jonas ; Gao, Jian-Rong (Ed.)
  5. Zmuidzinas, Jonas ; Gao, Jian-Rong (Ed.)
  6. Zmuidzinas, Jonas ; Gao, Jian-Rong (Ed.)
  7. Abstract CMB-S4—the next-generation ground-based cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiment—is set to significantly advance the sensitivity of CMB measurements and enhance our understanding of the origin and evolution of the universe. Among the science cases pursued with CMB-S4, the quest for detecting primordial gravitational waves is a central driver of the experimental design. This work details the development of a forecasting framework that includes a power-spectrum-based semianalytic projection tool, targeted explicitly toward optimizing constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r , in the presence of Galactic foregrounds and gravitational lensing of the CMB. This framework is unique in its direct use of information from the achieved performance of current Stage 2–3 CMB experiments to robustly forecast the science reach of upcoming CMB-polarization endeavors. The methodology allows for rapid iteration over experimental configurations and offers a flexible way to optimize the design of future experiments, given a desired scientific goal. To form a closed-loop process, we couple this semianalytic tool with map-based validation studies, which allow for the injection of additional complexity and verification of our forecasts with several independent analysis methods. We document multiple rounds of forecasts for CMB-S4 using this process and the resulting establishment of the current reference design ofmore »the primordial gravitational-wave component of the Stage-4 experiment, optimized to achieve our science goals of detecting primordial gravitational waves for r > 0.003 at greater than 5 σ , or in the absence of a detection, of reaching an upper limit of r < 0.001 at 95% CL.« less