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  1. null (Ed.)
    Physically Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are emerging hardware security primitives that leverage random variations during chip manufacturing process to generate unique secrets. The security level of generated PUF secrets is mainly determined by its unpredictability feature which is typically evaluated using the metric of entropy bits. In this paper, we propose a novel Pairwise Distinct-Modulus (PDM) technique that significantly improves the upper bound of PUF entropy bits from the scale of log2(N!) up to O(N^2). The PDM technique boosts entropy by eliminating the correlation within PUF response bits caused by element reuse in conventional pairwise comparison. We also propose a reliability-enhancing scheme to compensate the impact on reducing reliability by saving a significant portion of potential reliable response bits. Experimental results based on a published large-scale RO PUF frequency dataset validated that the proposed technique significantly boosts PUF entropy bits from the scale of O(N∙log2(N)) up to approach the new upper bound of O(N^2) with a comparable reliability, and the reliability-enhancing technique saves 4x more on the percentage of reliable response bits. 
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  2. This paper investigates countermeasures to side-channel attacks. A dynamic partial reconfiguration (DPR) method is proposed for field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs)s to make techniques such as differential power analysis (DPA) and correlation power analysis (CPA) difficult and ineffective. We call the technique side-channel power resistance for encryption algorithms using DPR, or SPREAD. SPREAD is designed to reduce cryptographic key related signal correlations in power supply transients by changing components of the hardware implementation on-the-fly using DPR. Replicated primitives within the advanced encryption standard (AES) algorithm, in particular, the substitution-box (SBOX)s, are synthesized to multiple and distinct gate-level implementations. The different implementations change the delay characteristics of the SBOXs, reducing correlations in the power traces, which, in turn, increases the difficulty of side-channel attacks. The effectiveness of the proposed countermeasures depends greatly on this principle; therefore, the focus of this paper is on the evaluation of implementation diversity techniques. 
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  3. This paper investigates countermeasures to side-channel attacks. A dynamic partial reconfiguration (DPR) method is proposed for field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs)s to make techniques such as differential power analysis (DPA) and correlation power analysis (CPA) difficult and ineffective. We call the technique side-channel power resistance for encryption algorithms using DPR, or SPREAD. SPREAD is designed to reduce cryptographic key related signal correlations in power supply transients by changing components of the hardware implementation on-the-fly using DPR. Replicated primitives within the advanced encryption standard (AES) algorithm, in particular, the substitution-box (SBOX)s, are synthesized to multiple and distinct gate-level implementations. The different implementations change the delay characteristics of the SBOXs, reducing correlations in the power traces, which, in turn, increases the difficulty of side-channel attacks. The effectiveness of the proposed countermeasures depends greatly on this principle; therefore, the focus of this paper is on the evaluation of implementation diversity techniques. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    Electronic money (e-money or e-Cash) is the digital representation of physical banknotes augmented by added use cases of online and remote payments. This paper presents a novel, anonymous e-money transaction protocol, built based on physical unclonable functions (PUFs), titled PUF-Cash. PUF-Cash preserves user anonymity while enabling both offline and online transaction capability. The PUF’s privacy-preserving property is leveraged to create blinded tokens for transaction anonymity while its hardware-based challenge–response pair authentication scheme provides a secure solution that is impervious to typical protocol attacks. The scheme is inspired from Chaum’s Digicash work in the 1980s and subsequent improvements. Unlike Chaum’s scheme, which relies on Rivest, Shamir and Adlemans’s (RSA’s) multiplicative homomorphic property to provide anonymity, the anonymity scheme proposed in this paper leverages the random and unique statistical properties of synthesized integrated circuits. PUF-Cash is implemented and demonstrated using a set of Xilinx Zynq Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Experimental results suggest that the hardware footprint of the solution is small, and the transaction rate is suitable for large-scale applications. An in-depth security analysis suggests that the solution possesses excellent statistical qualities in the generated authentication and encryption keys, and it is robust against a variety of attack vectors including model-building, impersonation, and side-channel variants. 
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