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Creators/Authors contains: "Cheema, Hammad"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 28, 2023
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  4. Three copper redox shuttles ([Cu( 1 )] 2+/1+ , [Cu( 2 )] 2+/1+ , and [Cu( 3 )] 2+/1+ ) featuring tetradentate ligands were synthesized and evaluated computationally, electrochemically, and in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) devices using a benchmark organic dye, Y123 . Neutral polyaromatic ligands with limited flexibility were targeted as a strategy to improve solar-to-electrical energy conversion by reducing voltage losses associated with redox shuttle electron transfer events. Inner-sphere electron transfer reorganization energies ( λ ) were computed quantum chemically and compared to the commonly used [Co(bpy) 3 ] 3+/2+ redox shuttle which has a reported λ valuemore »of 0.61 eV. The geometrically constrained biphenyl-based Cu redox shuttles investigated here have lower reorganization energies (0.34–0.53 eV) and thus can potentially operate with lower driving forces for dye regeneration (Δ G reg ) in DSC devices when compared to [Co(bpy) 3 ] 3+/2+ -based devices. The rigid tetradentate ligand design promotes more efficient electron transfer reactions leading to an improved J SC (14.1 mA cm −2 ), higher stability due to the chelate effect, and a decrease in V lossOC for one of the copper redox shuttle-based devices.« less
  5. Four organic sensitizers incorporating a cross-conjugated cyclopenta[2,1- b :3,4- b ′]dithiophene (CPDT) π-bridge have been synthesized. As a result of molecular engineering, broad high energy bands and red shifted absorption maxima and onset is observed relative to a benchmark analogue ( C218 ) using a non-cross-conjugated CPDT π-bridge. The use of a cross-conjugated bridge allows a new strategy for tuning dye energetics and introduction of increased absorption uniformity by adding additional high-energy absorption bands. These dyes show solar-to-electric conversion up to 800 nm with one derivative exceeding the performance of C218 under identical conditions.
  6. Iodine binding to thiophene rings in dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) has been hypothesized to be performance degrading in a number of literature cases. Binding of iodine to dyes near the semiconductor surface can promote undesirable electron transfers and lower the overall efficiency of devices. Six thiophene or furan containing dye analogs were synthesized to analyze iodine binding to the dyes via Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis studies, device performance metrics and density functional theory (DFT) based computations. Evidence suggests I 2 binds thiophene-based dyes stronger than furan-based dyes. This leads to higher DSC device currents and voltages from furan analogues,more »and longer electron lifetimes in DSC devices using furan based dyes. Raman spectrum of the TiO 2 surface-bound dyes reveals additional and more instense peaks for thiophene dyes in the presence of I 2 relative to no I 2 . Additionally, broader and shifted UV-Vis peaks are observed for thiophene dyes in the presence of I 2 on TiO 2 films suggesting significant interaction between the dye molecules and I 2 . These observations are also supported by DFT and TD-DFT calculations which indicate the absence of a key geometric energy minimum in the dye–I 2 ground state for furan dyes which are readily observed for the thiophene based analogues.« less