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  1. Abstract Understanding the dynamics of the quiet solar corona is important for answering key questions including the coronal heating problem. Multiple studies have suggested small-scale magnetic-reconnection events may play a crucial role. These reconnection events are expected to involve acceleration of electrons to suprathermal energies, which can then produce nonthermal observational signatures. However, due to the paucity of sensitive high-fidelity observations capable of probing these nonthermal signatures, most studies were unable to quantify their nonthermal nature. Here we use joint radio observations from the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA) to detect transient emissions from the quiet solar corona in the microwave (GHz) domain. While similar transients have been reported in the past, their nonthermal nature could not be adequately quantified due to the unavailability of broadband observations. Using a much larger bandwidth available now with the VLA and EOVSA, in this study, we are able to quantify the nonthermal energy associated with two of these transients. We find that the total nonthermal energy associated with some of these transients can be comparable to or even larger than the total thermal energy of a nanoflare, which underpins the importance of nonthermal energy in the total coronal energy budget. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 30, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Solar type III radio bursts are generated by beams of energetic electrons that travel along open magnetic field lines through the corona and into interplanetary space. However, understanding the source of these electrons and how they escape into interplanetary space remains an outstanding topic. Here we report multi-instrument, multiperspective observations of an interplanetary type III radio burst event shortly after the second perihelion of the Parker Solar Probe (PSP). This event was associated with a solar jet that produced an impulsive microwave burst event recorded by the Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array. The type III burst event also coincided with the detection of enhanced in situ energetic electrons recorded by both PSP at 0.37 au and WIND at 1 au, which were located very closely on the Parker spiral longitudinally. The close timing association and magnetic connectivity suggest that the in situ energetic electrons originated from the jet’s magnetic reconnection region. Intriguingly, microwave imaging spectroscopy results suggest that the escaping energetic electrons were injected into a large opening angle of about 90°, which is at least nine times broader than the apparent width of the jet spire. Our findings provide an interpretation for the previously reported, longitudinally broad spatial distribution of flare locations associated with prompt energetic electron events and have important implications for understanding the origin and distribution of energetic electrons in interplanetary space.

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  3. Abstract Magnetic and electronic properties of quantum materials heavily rely on the crystal structure even in the same chemical compositions. In this study, it is demonstrated that a layered tetragonal EuCd 2 Sb 2 structure can be obtained by treating bulk trigonal EuCd 2 Sb 2 under high pressure (6 GPa) and high temperature (600 °C). Magnetization measurements of the newly formed layered tetragonal EuCd 2 Sb 2 confirm an antiferromagnetic ordering with Neel temperature ( T N ) around 16 K, which is significantly higher than that ( T N ≈ 7 K) of trigonal EuCd 2 Sb 2 , consistent with heat capacity measurements. Moreover, bad metal behavior is observed in the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity and the resistivity shows a dramatic increase around the Neel temperature. Electronic structure calculations with local density approximation dynamic mean–field theory (LDA+DMFT) show that this material is strongly correlated with well‐formed large magnetic moments, due to Hund's coupling, which is known to dramatically suppress the Kondo scale. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  4. Abstract This article describes the development and evaluation of our passively actuated closed-loop articulated wearable (CLAW) that uses a common slider to passively drive its exo-fingers for use in physical training of people with limited hand mobility. Our design approach utilizes physiological tasks for dimensional synthesis and yields a variety of design candidates that fulfill the desired fingertip precision grasping trajectory. Once it is ensured that the synthesized fingertip motion is close to the physiological fingertip grasping trajectories, performance assessment criteria related to user–device interference and natural joint angle movement are taken into account. After the most preferred design for each finger is chosen, minor modifications are made related to substituting the backbone chain with the wearer’s limb to provide the skeletal structure for the customized passive device. Subsequently, we evaluate it for natural joint motion based on a novel design candidate assessment method. A hand prototype is printed, and its preliminary performance regarding natural joint motion, wearability, and scalability are assessed. The pilot experimental test on a range of healthy subjects with different hand/finger sizes shows that the CLAW hand is easy to operate and guides the user’s fingers without causing any discomfort. It also ensures both precision and power grasping in a natural manner. This study establishes the importance of incorporating novel design candidate assessment techniques, based on human finger kinematic models, on a conceptual design level that can assist in finding design candidates for natural joint motion coordination. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  5. Magnetic reconnection is the key mechanism for energy release in solar eruptions, where the high-temperature emission is the primary diagnostic for investigating the plasma properties during the reconnection process. Non-thermal broadening of high-temperature lines has been observed in both the reconnection current sheet (CS) and flare loop-top regions by UV spectrometers, but its origin remains unclear. In this work, we use a recently developed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation to model magnetic reconnection in the standard solar flare geometry and reveal highly dynamic plasma flows in the reconnection regions. We calculate the synthetic profiles of the Fe XXI 1354 Å line observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spacecraft by using parameters of the MHD model, including plasma density, temperature, and velocity. Our model shows that the turbulent bulk plasma flows in the CS and flare loop-top regions are responsible for the non-thermal broadening of the Fe XXI emission line. The modeled non-thermal velocity ranges from tens of km s −1 to more than two hundred km s −1 , which is consistent with the IRIS observations. Simulated 2D spectral line maps around the reconnection region also reveal highly dynamic downwflow structures where the high non-thermal velocity is large, which is consistent with the observations as well. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 2, 2024
  6. Abstract We develop a nonequilibrium increment method in quantum Monte Carlo simulations to obtain the Rényi entanglement entropy of various quantum many-body systems with high efficiency and precision. To demonstrate its power, we show the results on a few important yet difficult (2 + 1) d quantum lattice models, ranging from the Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet with spontaneous symmetry breaking, the quantum critical point with O(3) conformal field theory (CFT) to the toric code $${{\mathbb{Z}}}_{2}$$ Z 2 topological ordered state and the Kagome $${{\mathbb{Z}}}_{2}$$ Z 2 quantum spin liquid model with frustration and multi-spin interactions. In all these cases, our method either reveals the precise CFT data from the logarithmic correction or extracts the quantum dimension in topological order, from the dominant area law in finite-size scaling, with very large system sizes, controlled errorbars, and minimal computational costs. Our method, therefore, establishes a controlled and practical computation paradigm to obtain the difficult yet important universal properties in highly entangled quantum matter. 
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  7. Abstract Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) are frequently detected in solar and stellar flares, but the underlying physical mechanisms are still to be ascertained. Here, we show microwave QPPs during a solar flare originating from quasi-periodic magnetic reconnection at the flare current sheet. They appear as two vertically detached but closely related sources with the brighter ones located at flare loops and the weaker ones along the stretched current sheet. Although the brightness temperatures of the two microwave sources differ greatly, they vary in phase with periods of about 10–20 s and 30–60 s. The gyrosynchrotron-dominated microwave spectra also present a quasi-periodic soft-hard-soft evolution. These results suggest that relevant high-energy electrons are accelerated by quasi-periodic reconnection, likely arising from the modulation of magnetic islands within the current sheet as validated by a 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation. 
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  8. Abstract

    Flare-associated quasiperiodic pulsations (QPPs) in radio and X-ray wavelengths, particularly those related to nonthermal electrons, contain important information about the energy release and transport processes during flares. However, the paucity of spatially resolved observations of such QPPs with a fast time cadence has been an obstacle for us to further understand their physical nature. Here, we report observations of such a QPP event that occurred during the impulsive phase of a C1.8-class eruptive solar flare using radio imaging spectroscopy data from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and complementary X-ray imaging and spectroscopy data. The radio QPPs, observed by the VLA in the 1–2 GHz with a subsecond cadence, are shown as three spatially distinct sources with different physical characteristics. Two radio sources are located near the conjugate footpoints of the erupting magnetic flux rope with opposite senses of polarization. One of the sources displays a QPP behavior with a ∼5 s period. The third radio source, located at the top of the postflare arcade, coincides with the location of an X-ray source and shares a similar period of ∼25–45 s. We show that the two oppositely polarized radio sources are likely due to coherent electron cyclotron maser emission. On the other hand, the looptop QPP source, observed in both radio and X-rays, is consistent with incoherent gyrosynchrotron and bremsstrahlung emission, respectively. We conclude that the concurrent, but spatially distinct QPP sources must involve multiple mechanisms which operate in different magnetic loop systems and at different periods.

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  9. Abstract The acceleration and transport of energetic electrons during solar flares is one of the outstanding topics in solar physics. Recent X-ray and radio imaging and spectroscopy observations have provided diagnostics of the distribution of nonthermal electrons and suggested that, in certain flare events, electrons are primarily accelerated in the loop top and likely experience trapping and/or scattering effects. By combining the focused particle transport equation with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of solar flares, we present a macroscopic particle model that naturally incorporates electron acceleration and transport. Our simulation results indicate that physical processes such as turbulent pitch-angle scattering can have important impacts on both electron acceleration in the loop top and transport in the flare loop, and their influences are highly energy-dependent. A spatial-dependent turbulent scattering with enhancement in the loop top can enable both efficient electron acceleration to high energies and transport of abundant electrons to the footpoints. We further generate spatially resolved synthetic hard X-ray (HXR) emission images and spectra, revealing both the loop-top and footpoint HXR sources. Similar to the observations, we show that the footpoint HXR sources are brighter and harder than the loop-top HXR source. We suggest that the macroscopic particle model provides new insights into understanding the connection between the observed loop-top and footpoint nonthermal emission sources by combining the particle model with dynamically evolving MHD simulations of solar flares. 
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