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  1. Multilevel proteomics aims to delineate proteins at the peptide (bottom-up proteomics), proteoform (top-down proteomics), and protein complex (native proteomics) levels. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) can achieve highly efficient separation and highly sensitive detection of complex mixtures of peptides, proteoforms, and even protein complexes because of its substantial technical progress. CE-MS has become a valuable alternative to the routinely used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for multilevel proteomics. This review summarizes the most recent (2019-2021) advances of CE-MS for multilevel proteomics regarding technological progress and biological applications. We also provide brief perspectives on CE-MS for multilevel proteomics at the end, highlighting some future directions and potential challenges. 
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  2. Defining the denatured state ensemble (DSE) and disordered proteins is essential to understanding folding, chaperone action, degradation, and translocation. As compared with water-soluble proteins, the DSE of membrane proteins is much less characterized. Here, we measure the DSE of the helical membrane protein GlpG of Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) in native-like lipid bilayers. The DSE was obtained using our steric trapping method, which couples denaturation of doubly biotinylated GlpG to binding of two streptavidin molecules. The helices and loops are probed using limited proteolysis and mass spectrometry, while the dimensions are determined using our paramagnetic biotin derivative and double electron–electron resonance spectroscopy. These data, along with our Upside simulations, identify the DSE as being highly dynamic, involving the topology changes and unfolding of some of the transmembrane (TM) helices. The DSE is expanded relative to the native state but only to 15 to 75% of the fully expanded condition. The degree of expansion depends on the local protein packing and the lipid composition. E. coli ’s lipid bilayer promotes the association of TM helices in the DSE and, probably in general, facilitates interhelical interactions. This tendency may be the outcome of a general lipophobic effect of proteins within the cell membranes. 
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