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Creators/Authors contains: "Chen, Gang"

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  1. Abstract

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs), intrusions of warm and moist air, can effectively drive weather extremes over the Arctic and trigger subsequent impact on sea ice and climate. What controls the observed multi-decadal Arctic AR trends remains unclear. Here, using multiple sources of observations and model experiments, we find that, contrary to the uniform positive trend in climate simulations, the observed Arctic AR frequency increases by twice as much over the Atlantic sector compared to the Pacific sector in 1981-2021. This discrepancy can be reconciled by the observed positive-to-negative phase shift of Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) and the negative-to-positive phase shift of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), which increase and reduce Arctic ARs over the Atlantic and Pacific sectors, respectively. Removing the influence of the IPO and AMO can reduce the projection uncertainties in near-future Arctic AR trends by about 24%, which is important for constraining projection of Arctic warming and the timing of an ice-free Arctic.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2025
  2. Abstract

    MXenes are 2D materials with great potential in various applications. However, the degradation of MXenes in humid environments has become a main obstacle in their practical use. Here we combine deep neural networks and an active learning scheme to develop a neural network potential (NNP) for aqueous MXene systems with ab initio precision but low cost. The oxidation behaviors of super large aqueous MXene systems are investigated systematically at nanosecond timescales for the first time. The oxidation process of MXenes is clearly displayed at the atomic level. Free protons and oxides greatly inhibit subsequent oxidation reactions, leading to the degree of oxidation of MXenes to exponentially decay with time, which is consistent with the oxidation rate of MXenes measured experimentally. Importantly, this computational study represents the first exploration of the kinetic process of oxidation of super‐sized aqueous MXene systems. It opens a promising avenue for the future development of effective protection strategies aimed at controlling the stability of MXenes.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 7, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Extreme cold events over North America such as the February 2021 cold wave have been suggested to be linked to stratospheric polar vortex stretching. However, it is not resolved how robustly and on which timescales the stratosphere contributes to the surface anomalies. Here we introduce a simple measure of stratospheric wave activity for reanalyses and model outputs. In contrast to the well-known surface influences of sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) that increase the intraseasonal persistence of weather regimes, we show that extreme stratospheric wave events are accompanied by intraseasonal fluctuations between warm and cold spells over North America in observations and climate models. Particularly, strong stratospheric wave events are followed by an increased risk of cold extremes over North America 5–25 days later. Idealized simulations in an atmospheric model with a well-resolved stratosphere corroborate that strong stratospheric wave activity precedes North American cold spells through vertical wave coupling. These findings potentially benefit the predictability of high-impact winter cold extremes over North America.

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  4. Droughts and heatwaves are rising concerns with regard to the frequent formation of the compound or concurrent extremes (CEs), which can cause greater havoc than an individual event of a higher magnitude. Recently, they have been frequently detected to form CEs together or with other events (e.g., floods, aridity, and humidity events) concurrently or with spatiotemporal lags. Therefore, this systematic review assesses these CEs by reviewing the following aspects: CE hotspots, events, and variable combinations that form CEs; frequently analyzed CE parameters (e.g., frequency and severity); large-scale modes of climate variability (CV) as drivers alongside the approaches to relate them to CEs; and CE impacts (e.g., yield loss and fire risk) alongside the impact integration approaches from 166 screened publications. Additionally, three varied analysis frameworks of CEs are summarized to highlight the different analysis components of drought- and heatwave-associated CEs, which is the novelty of this study. The analysis frameworks vary with regard to the three major assessment objectives: only CE parameters (event–event), driver association (event–driver), and impacts (event–impact). According to this review, the most frequently reported hotspots of these CEs in global studies are southern Africa, Australia, South America, and Southeast Asia. In regional studies, several vital hotspots (e.g., Iberian Peninsula, Balkans, and Mediterranean Basin) have been reported, some of which have not been mentioned in global studies because they usually report hotspots as broader regions. In addition, different event combinations (e.g., drought and heatwave; and heatwave and stagnation) are analyzed by varying the combination of variables, namely, temperature, precipitation, and their derived indices. Thus, this study presents three major analysis frameworks and components of drought- and heatwave-associated CE analysis for prospective researchers. 
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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  6. Abstract

    Extreme stratospheric wave activity has been suggested to be connected to surface temperature anomalies, but some key processes are not well understood. Using observations, we show that the stratospheric events featuring weaker‐than‐normal wave activity are associated with increased North American (NA) cold extreme risks before and near the event onset, accompanied by less frequent atmospheric river (AR) events on the west coast of the United States. Strong stratospheric wave events, on the other hand, exhibit a tropospheric weather regime transition. They are preceded by NA warm anomalies and increased AR frequency over the west coast, followed by increased risks of NA cold extremes and north‐shifted ARs over the Atlantic. Moreover, these links between the stratosphere and troposphere are attributed to the vertical structure of wave coupling. Weak wave events show a wave structure of westward tilt with increasing altitudes, while strong wave events feature a shift from westward tilt to eastward tilt during their life cycle. This wave phase shift indicates vertical wave coupling and likely regional planetary wave reflection. Further examinations of CMIP6 models show that models with a degraded representation of stratospheric wave structure exhibit biases in the troposphere during strong wave events. Specifically, models with a stratospheric ridge weaker than the reanalysis exhibit a weaker tropospheric signal. Our findings suggest that the vertical coupling of extreme stratospheric wave activity should be evaluated in the model representation of stratosphere‐troposphere coupling.

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