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  1. Purpose: To investigate the effect of dry coating the amount and type of silica on powder flowability enhancement using a comprehensive set of 19 pharmaceutical powders having different sizes, surface roughness, morphology, and aspect ratios, as well as assess flow predictability via Bond number estimated using a mechanistic multi-asperity particle contact model. Method: Particle size, shape, density, surface energy and area, SEM-based morphology, and FFC were assessed for all powders. Hydrophobic (R972P) or hydrophilic (A200) nano-silica were dry coated for each powder at 25%, 50%, and 100% surface area coverage (SAC). Flow predictability was assessed via particle size and Bond number. Results: Nearly maximal flow enhancement, one or more flow category, was observed for all powders at 50% SAC of either type of silica, equivalent to 1 wt% or less for both the hydrophobic R972P or hydrophilic A200, while R972P generally performed slightly better. Silica amount as SAC better helped understand the relative performance. The power-law relation between FFC and Bond number was observed. Conclusion: Significant flow enhancements were achieved at 50% SAC, validating previous models. Most uncoated very cohesive powders improved by two flow categories, attaining easy flow. Flowability could not be predicted for both the uncoated and dry coated powders via particle size alone. Prediction was significantly better using Bond number computed via the mechanistic multi-asperity particle contact model accounting for the particle size, surface energy, roughness, and the amount and type of silica. The widely accepted 200 nm surface roughness was not valid for most pharmaceutical powders. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    In plants, autophagy is a conserved process by which intracellular materials, including damaged proteins, aggregates, and entire organelles, are trafficked to the vacuole for degradation, thus maintaining cellular homeostasis. The past few decades have seen extensive research into the core components of the central autophagy machinery and their physiological roles in plant growth and development as well as responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Moreover, several methods have been established for monitoring autophagic activities in plants, and these have greatly facilitated plant autophagy research. However, some of the methodologies are prone to misuse or misinterpretation, sometimes casting doubt on the reliability of the conclusions being drawn about plant autophagy. Here, we summarize the methods that are widely used for monitoring plant autophagy at the physiological, microscopic, and biochemical levels, including discussions of their advantages and limitations, to provide a guide for studying this important process.

     
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  3. Abstract

    The mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) biosynthetic pathway for lysosome biogenesis has been studied for decades and is considered a well-understood topic. However, whether this pathway is regulated remains an open question. In a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screen, we discover TMEM251 as the first regulator of the M6P modification. Deleting TMEM251 causes mistargeting of most lysosomal enzymes due to their loss of M6P modification and accumulation of numerous undigested materials. We further demonstrate that TMEM251 localizes to the Golgi and is required for the cleavage and activity of GNPT, the enzyme that catalyzes M6P modification. In zebrafish, TMEM251 deletion leads to severe developmental defects including heart edema and skeletal dysplasia, which phenocopies Mucolipidosis Type II. Our discovery provides a mechanism for the newly discovered human disease caused by TMEM251 mutations. We name TMEM251 asGNPTABcleavage andactivityfactor (GCAF) and its related disease as Mucolipidosis Type V.

     
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