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  1. The accretion of future allochthonous terranes (e.g., microcontinents or oceanic plateaus) onto the southern margin of Asia occurred repeatedly during the evolution and closure of the Tethyan oceanic realm, but the specific geodynamic processes of this protracted convergence, successive accretion, and subduction zone initiation remain largely unknown. Here, we use numerical models to better understand the dynamics that govern multiple terrane accretions and the polarity of new subduction zone initiation. Our results show that the sediments surrounding the future terranes and the structural complexity of the overriding plate are important factors that affect accretion of multiple plates and guide subduction polarity. Wide (≥400 km) and buoyant terranes with sediments behind them and fast continental plate motions are favorable for multiple unidirectional subduction zone jumps, which are also referred to as subduction zone transference, and successive terrane-accretion events. The jumping times (∼3−20+ m.y.) are mainly determined by the convergence rates and rheology of the overriding complex plate with preceding terrane collisions, which increase with slower convergence rates and/or a greater number of preceding terrane collisions. Our work provides new insights into the key geodynamic conditions governing multiple subduction zone jumps induced by successive accretion and discusses Tethyan evolution at a macro level. More than 50 m.y. after India-Asia collision, subduction has yet to initiate along the southern Indian plate, which may be the joint result of slower plate convergence and partitioned deformation across southern Asia.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 18, 2025
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  6. Abstract

    IRF family genes have been shown to be crucial in tumorigenesis and tumour immunity. However, information about the role of IRF in the systematic assessment of pan‐cancer and in predicting the efficacy of tumour therapy is still unknown. In this work, we performed a systematic analysis of IRF family genes in 33 tumour samples, including expression profiles, genomics and clinical characteristics. We then applied Single‐Sample Gene‐Set Enrichment Analysis (ssGSEA) to calculate IRF‐scores and analysed the impact of IRF‐scores on tumour progression, immune infiltration and treatment efficacy. Our results showed that genomic alterations, including SNPs, CNVs and DNA methylation, can lead to dysregulation of IRFs expression in tumours and participate in regulating multiple tumorigenesis. IRF‐score expression differed significantly between 12 normal and tumour samples and the impact on tumour prognosis and immune infiltration depended on tumour type. IRF expression was correlated to drug sensitivity and to the expression of immune checkpoints and immune cell infiltration, suggesting that dysregulation of IRF family expression may be a critical factor affecting tumour drug response. Our study comprehensively characterizes the genomic and clinical profile of IRFs in pan‐cancer and highlights their reliability and potential value as predictive markers of oncology drug efficacy. This may provide new ideas for future personalized oncology treatment.

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  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 28, 2024