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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 2, 2024
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  4. Solid polymer and perovskite-type ceramic electrolytes have both shown promise in advancing solid-state lithium metal batteries. Despite their favorable interfacial stability against lithium metal, polymer electrolytes face issues due to their low ionic conductivity and poor mechanical strength. Highly conductive and mechanically robust ceramics, on the other hand, cannot physically remain in contact with redox-active particles that expand and contract during charge-discharge cycles unless excessive pressures are used. To overcome the disadvantages of each material, polymer-ceramic composites can be formed; however, depletion interactions will always lead to aggregation of the ceramic particles if a homopolymer above its melting temperature is used. In this study, we incorporate Li 0.33 La 0.56 TiO 3 (LLTO) nanoparticles into a block copolymer, polystyrene- b -poly (ethylene oxide) (SEO), to develop a polymer-composite electrolyte (SEO-LLTO). TEMs of the same nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide (PEO) show highly aggregated particles whereas a significant fraction of the nanoparticles are dispersed within the PEO-rich lamellae of the SEO-LLTO electrolyte. We use synchrotron hard x-ray microtomography to study the cell failure and interfacial stability of SEO-LLTO in cycled lithium-lithium symmetric cells. Three-dimensional tomograms reveal the formation of large globular lithium structures in the vicinity of the LLTO aggregates. Encasing the SEO-LLTO between layers of SEO to form a “sandwich” electrolyte, we prevent direct contact of LLTO with lithium metal, which allows for the passage of seven-fold higher current densities without signatures of lithium deposition around LLTO. We posit that eliminating particle clustering and direct contact of LLTO and lithium metal through dry processing techniques is crucial to enabling composite electrolytes. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 2, 2024
  5. Abstract

    The upper boundary of the mantle transition zone, known as the “410-km discontinuity”, is attributed to the phase transformation of the mineral olivine (α) to wadsleyite (β olivine). Here we present observations of triplicated P-waves from dense seismic arrays that constrain the structure of the subducting Pacific slab near the 410-km discontinuity beneath the northern Sea of Japan. Our analysis of P-wave travel times and waveforms at periods as short as 2 s indicates the presence of an ultra-low-velocity layer within the cold slab, with a P-wave velocity that is at least ≈20% lower than in the ambient mantle and an apparent thickness of ≈20 km along the wave path. This ultra-low-velocity layer could contain unstable material (e.g., poirierite) with reduced grain size where diffusionless transformations are favored.

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  6. The cellular network offers a ubiquitous emergency call service with its pervasive coverage. In the United States, it can be consumed by dialing 911 for cellular users, and the emergency call is forwarded to the public safety answer point (PSAP), which handles emergency service requests. According to regulatory authority requirements [1,2,3] for cellular emergency services, anonymous user equipment (UE) is allowed to access them without a SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card, a valid mobile subscription, or a roaming agreement with the visited cellular network. Such support of the cellular emergency services requires different operations from conventional cellular services, thereby increasing the attack surface of the cellular infrastructure.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 17, 2024
  7. Seismic imaging shows a melt fraction of up to 20% in the depth range that supplied prior Yellowstone eruptions. 
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