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  1. Gradual typing has emerged as a popular design point in programming languages, attracting significant interests from both academia and industry. Programmers in gradually typed languages are free to utilize static and dynamic typing as needed. To make such languages sound, runtime checks mediate the boundary of typed and untyped code. Unfortunately, such checks can incur significant runtime overhead on programs that heavily mix static and dynamic typing. To combat this overhead without necessitating changes to the underlying implementations of languages, we present discriminative typing. Discriminative typing works by optimistically inferring types for functions and implementing an optimized version of the function based on this type. To preserve safety it also implements an un-optimized version of the function based purely on the provided annotations. With two versions of each function in hand, discriminative typing translates programs so that the optimized functions are called as frequently as possible while also preserving program behaviors.

    We have implemented discriminative typing in Reticulated Python and have evaluated its performance compared to guarded Reticulated Python. Our results show that discriminative typing improves the performance across 95% of tested programs, when compared to Reticulated, and achieves more than 4× speedup in more than 56% of these programs. We also compare its performance against a previous optimization approach and find that discriminative typing improved performance across 93% of tested programs, with 30% of these programs receiving speedups between 4 to 25 times. Finally, our evaluation shows that discriminative typing remarkably reduces the overhead of gradual typing on many mixed type configurations of programs.

    In addition, we have implemented discriminative typing in Grift and evaluated its performance. Our evaluation demonstrations that DT significantly improves performance of Grift

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 5, 2025
  2. Abstract

    The accumulation and transmission of mechanical stresses in the cell cortex and membrane determines the mechanics of cell shape and coordinates essential physical behaviors, from cell polarization to cell migration. However, the extent that the membrane and cytoskeleton each contribute to the transmission of mechanical stresses to coordinate diverse behaviors is unclear. Here, we reconstitute a minimal model of the actomyosin cortex within liposomes that adheres, spreads and ultimately ruptures on a surface. During spreading, accumulated adhesion-induced (passive) stresses within the membrane drive changes in the spatial assembly of actin. By contrast, during rupture, accumulated myosin-induced (active) stresses within the cortex determine the rate of pore opening. Thus, in the same system, devoid of biochemical regulation, the membrane and cortex can each play a passive or active role in the generation and transmission of mechanical stress, and their relative roles drive diverse biomimetic physical behaviors.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. Abstract Computational modeling serves an important role in childbirth-related research. Prescribed fetal descent trajectory is a key characteristic in childbirth simulations. Two major types of fully prescribed fetal descent trajectories can be identified in the literature: straight descent trajectories and curve of Carus. The straight descent trajectory has the advantage of being simpler and can serve as a reasonable approximation for relatively small fetal movements during labor, but it cannot be used to simulate the entire childbirth process. The curve of Carus is the well-recognized fetal descent trajectory with physiological significance. However, no detailed procedure to geometrically define the curve of Carus can be found in existing computational studies. This status of curve of Carus simulation in the literature hinders the direct comparison of results across different studies and the advancement of computational techniques built upon previous research. The goals of this study are: (1) propose a universal approach to derive the curve of Carus for the second stage of labor, from the point when the fetal head engages the pelvis to the point when the fetal head is fully delivered; and (2) demonstrate its utility when considering various fetal head sizes. The current study provides a detailed formulation of the curve of Carus, considering geometries of both the mother and the fetus. The maternal geometries were obtained from MRI data, and the fetal head geometries were based on laser scanning of a replica of a real fetal head. 
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  4. Hanus, Michael ; Igarashi, Atsushi (Ed.)
  5. Dense assemblies of self-propelling rods (SPRs) may exhibit fascinating collective behaviors and anomalous physical properties that are far away from equilibrium. Using large-scale Brownian dynamics simulations, we investigate the dynamics of disclination defects in 2D fluidized swarming motions of dense dry SPRs ( i.e. , without hydrodynamic effects) that form notable local positional topological structures that are reminiscent of smectic order. We find the deformations of smectic-like rod layers can create unique polar structures that lead to slow translations and rotations of ±1/2-order defects, which are fundamentally different from the fast streaming defect motions observed in wet active matter. We measure and characterize the statistical properties of topological defects and reveal their connections with the coherent structures. Furthermore, we construct a bottom-up active-liquid-crystal model to analyze the instability of polar lanes, which effectively leads to defect formation between interlocked polar lanes and serves as the origin of the large-scale swarming motions. 
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  6. Abstract Gradual typing allows programs to enjoy the benefits of both static typing and dynamic typing. While it is often desirable to migrate a program from more dynamically typed to more statically typed or vice versa, gradual typing itself does not provide a way to facilitate this migration. This places the burden on programmers who have to manually add or remove type annotations. Besides the general challenge of adding type annotations to dynamically typed code, there are subtle interactions between these annotations in gradually typed code that exacerbate the situation. For example, to migrate a program to be as static as possible, in general, all possible combinations of adding or removing type annotations from parameters must be tried out and compared. In this paper, we address this problem by developing migrational typing , which efficiently types all possible ways of replacing dynamic types with fully static types for a gradually typed program. The typing result supports automatically migrating a program to be as static as possible or introducing the least number of dynamic types necessary to remove a type error. The approach can be extended to support user-defined criteria about which annotations to modify. We have implemented migrational typing and evaluated it on large programs. The results show that migrational typing scales linearly with the size of the program and takes only 2–4 times longer than plain gradual typing. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
    Microorganisms may exhibit rich swimming behaviours in anisotropic fluids, such as liquid crystals, which have direction-dependent physical and rheological properties. Here we construct a two-dimensional computation model to study the undulatory swimming mechanisms of microswimmers in a solution of rigid, rodlike liquid crystal polymers. We describe the fluid phase using Doi's $Q$ -tensor model, and treat the swimmer as a finite-length flexible fibre with imposed propagating travelling waves on the body curvature. The fluid–structure interactions are resolved via an immersed boundary method. Compared with the swimming dynamics in Newtonian fluids, we observe non-Newtonian behaviours that feature both enhanced and retarded swimming motions in lyotropic liquid crystal polymers. We reveal the propulsion mechanism by analysing the near-body flow fields and polymeric force distributions, together with asymptotic analysis for an idealized model of Taylor's swimming sheet. 
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