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  1. Abstract

    The luminosities (L) and velocity dispersions (σ) of the extinction-corrected Balmer emission lines of giant Hiiregions in nearby galaxies exhibit a tight correlation (∼0.35 dex scatter). There are few constraints, however, on whether giant Hiiregions at significant look-back times follow anLσrelation, given the angular resolution and sensitivity required to study them individually. We measure the luminosities and velocity dispersions of Hαand Hβemission from 11 Hiiregions in Sp1149, a spiral galaxy at redshift (z)z= 1.49 multiply imaged by the MACS J1149 galaxy cluster. Sp1149 is also the host galaxy of the first-known strongly lensed supernova with resolved images, SN Refsdal. We employ archival Keck I OSIRIS observations, and newly acquired Keck I MOSFIRE and Large Binocular Telescope LUCI long-slit spectra of Sp1149. When we use theGLAFICsimply parameterized lens model, we find that the Hαluminosities of the Hiiregions atz= 1.49 are a factor of6.42.0+2.9brighter than predicted by the low-redshiftLσrelation we measure from Very Large Telescope MUSE spectroscopy. If the lens model is accurate, then the Hiiregions in Sp1149 differ from their low-redshift counterparts. We identify an Hiiregion in Sp1149 that is dramatically brighter (by 2.03 ± 0.44 dex) than our low-redshiftLσrelation predicts given its low velocity dispersion. Finally, the Hiiregions in Sp1149 are consistent, perhaps surprisingly, with thez≈ 0 star-forming locus on the Baldwin–Phillips–Terlevich diagram.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Galaxy-cluster gravitational lenses enable the study of faint galaxies even at large lookback times, and, recently, time-delay constraints on the Hubble constant. There have been few tests, however, of lens model predictions adjacent to the critical curve (≲8″) where the magnification is greatest. In a companion paper, we use the GLAFIC lens model to constrain the BalmerLσrelation for Hiiregions in a galaxy at redshiftz= 1.49 strongly lensed by the MACS J1149 galaxy cluster. Here we perform a detailed comparison between the predictions of 10 cluster lens models that employ multiple modeling assumptions with our measurements of 11 magnified, giant Hiiregions. We find that that the models predict magnifications an average factor of 6.2 smaller, a ∼2σtension, than that inferred from the Hiiregions under the assumption that they follow the low-redshiftLσrelation. To evaluate the possibility that the lens model magnifications are strongly biased, we next consider the flux ratios among knots in three images of Sp1149, and find that these are consistent with model predictions. Moreover, while the mass-sheet degeneracy could in principle account for a factor of ∼6 discrepancy in magnification, the value ofH0inferred from SN Refsdal’s time delay would become implausibly small. We conclude that the lens models are not likely to be highly biased, and that instead the Hiiregions in Sp1149 are substantially more luminous than the low-redshift BalmerLσrelation predicts.

     
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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 30, 2024
  4. ABSTRACT

    We present a new analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) and optical spectra of a sample of three z > 8 galaxies discovered behind the gravitational lensing cluster RX J2129.4+0009. We combine these observations with z > 7.5 galaxies from the literature, for which similar measurements are available. As already pointed out in other studies, the high [O iii]λ5007/[O ii]λ3727 ratios (O32) and steep UV continuum slopes (β) are consistent with the values observed for low-redshift Lyman continuum emitters, suggesting that such galaxies contribute to the ionizing budget of the intergalactic medium. We construct a logistic regression model to estimate the probability of a galaxy being a Lyman continuum emitter based on the measured MUV, β, and O32. Using this probability and the UV luminosity function, we construct an empirical model that estimates the contribution of high-redshift galaxies to reionization. The preferred scenario in our analysis shows that at z ∼ 8, the average escape fraction of the galaxy population [i.e. including both LyC emitters (LCEs) and non-emitters] varies with MUV, with intermediate UV luminosity (−19 < MUV < −16) galaxies having larger escape fraction. Galaxies with faint UV luminosity (−16 < MUV < −13.5) contribute most of the ionizing photons. The relative contribution of faint versus bright galaxies depends on redshift, with the intermediate UV galaxies becoming more important over time. UV bright galaxies, although more likely to be LCEs at a given log(O32) and β, contribute the least of the total ionizing photon budget.

     
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  5. Abstract

    A tight positive correlation between the stellar mass and the gas-phase metallicity of galaxies has been observed at low redshifts. The redshift evolution of this correlation can strongly constrain theories of galaxy evolution. The advent of JWST allows probing the mass–metallicity relation at redshifts far beyond what was previously accessible. Here we report the discovery of two emission line galaxies at redshifts 8.15 and 8.16 in JWST NIRCam imaging and NIRSpec spectroscopy of targets gravitationally lensed by the cluster RX J2129.4+0005. We measure their metallicities and stellar masses along with nine additional galaxies at 7.2 <zspec< 9.5 to report the first quantitative statistical inference of the mass–metallicity relation atz≈ 8. We measure ∼0.9 dex evolution in the normalization of the mass–metallicity relation fromz≈ 8 to the local universe; at a fixed stellar mass, galaxies are 8 times less metal enriched atz≈ 8 compared to the present day. Our inferred normalization is in agreement with the predictions of FIRE simulations. Our inferred slope of the mass–metallicity relation is similar to or slightly shallower than that predicted by FIRE or observed at lower redshifts. We compare thez≈ 8 galaxies to extremely low-metallicity analog candidates in the local universe, finding that they are generally distinct from extreme emission line galaxies or “green peas,” but are similar in strong emission line ratios and metallicities to “blueberry galaxies.” Despite this similarity, at a fixed stellar mass, thez≈ 8 galaxies have systematically lower metallicities compared to blueberry galaxies.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 25, 2024
  6. ABSTRACT

    We report the discovery of a transient seen in a strongly lensed arc at redshift zs = 1.2567 in Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the Abell 370 galaxy cluster. The transient is detected at 29.51 ± 0.14 AB mag in a WFC3/UVIS F200LP difference image made using observations from two different epochs, obtained in the framework of the Flashlights programme, and is also visible in the F350LP band (mF350LP ≈ 30.53 ± 0.76 AB mag). The transient is observed on the negative-parity side of the critical curve at a distance of ∼0.6 arcsec from it, greater than previous examples of lensed stars. The large distance from the critical curve yields a significantly smaller macromagnification, but our simulations show that bright, O/B-type supergiants can reach sufficiently high magnifications to be seen at the observed position and magnitude. In addition, the observed transient image is a trailing image with an observer-frame time delay of ∼+0.8 d from its expected counterpart, so that any transient lasting for longer than that should have also been seen on the minima side and is thus excluded. This, together with the blue colour we measure for the transient (mF200LP − mF350LP ≈ [−0.3, −1.6] AB), rules out most other transient candidates such as (kilo)novae, for example, and makes a lensed star the prime candidate. Assuming that the transient is indeed a lensed star as suggested, many more such events should be detected in the near future in cluster surveys with the Hubble Space Telescope and JWST.

     
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  7. Smith, Keith (Ed.)
    Ultraviolet light from early galaxies is thought to have ionized gas in the intergalactic medium. However, there are few observational constraints on this epoch because of the faintness of those galaxies and the redshift of their optical light into the infrared. We report the observation, in JWST imaging, of a distant galaxy that is magnified by gravitational lensing. JWST spectroscopy of the galaxy, at rest-frame optical wavelengths, detects strong nebular emission lines that are attributable to oxygen and hydrogen. The measured redshift is z= 9.51 ± 0.01, corresponding to 510 million years after the Big Bang. The galaxy has a radius of 16.2-7.2+4.6 parsecs, which is substantially more compact than galaxies with equivalent luminosity at z~ 6 to 8, leading to a high star formation rate surface density. 
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  8. The gravitationally lensed supernova Refsdal appeared in multiple images produced through gravitational lensing by a massive foreground galaxy cluster. After the supernova appeared in 2014, lens models of the galaxy cluster predicted that an additional image of the supernova would appear in 2015, which was subsequently observed. We use the time delays between the images to perform a blinded measurement of the expansion rate of the Universe, quantified by the Hubble constant (H0). Using eight cluster lens models, we inferH0=64.84.3+4.4 kilometers per second per megaparsec. Using the two models most consistent with the observations, we findH0=66.63.3+4.1 kilometers per second per megaparsec. The observations are best reproduced by models that assign dark-matter halos to individual galaxies and the overall cluster.

     
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