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  1. Purpose AlSi10Mg alloy is commonly used in laser powder bed fusion due to its printability, relatively high thermal conductivity, low density and good mechanical properties. However, the thermal conductivity of as-built materials as a function of processing (energy density, laser power, laser scanning speed, support structure) and build orientation, are not well explored in the literature. This study aims to elucidate the relationship between processing, microstructure, and thermal conductivity. Design/methodology/approach The thermal conductivity of laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) AlSi10Mg samples are investigated by the flash diffusivity and frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR) techniques. Thermal conductivities are linked to the microstructure of L-PBF AlSi10Mg, which changes with processing conditions. The through-plane exceeded the in-plane thermal conductivity for all energy densities. A co-located thermal conductivity map by frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR) and crystallographic grain orientation map by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was used to investigate the effect of microstructure on thermal conductivity. Findings The highest through-plane thermal conductivity (136 ± 2 W/m-K) was achieved at 59 J/mm 3 and exceeded the values reported previously. The in-plane thermal conductivity peaked at 117 ± 2 W/m-K at 50 J/mm 3 . The trend of thermal conductivity reducing with energy density at similar porosity was primarily due to the reduced grain size producingmore »more Al-Si interfaces that pose thermal resistance. At these interfaces, thermal energy must convert from electrons in the aluminum to phonons in the silicon. The co-located thermal conductivity and crystallographic grain orientation maps confirmed that larger colonies of columnar grains have higher thermal conductivity compared to smaller columnar grains. Practical implications The thermal properties of AlSi10Mg are crucial to heat transfer applications including additively manufactured heatsinks, cold plates, vapor chambers, heat pipes, enclosures and heat exchangers. Additionally, thermal-based nondestructive testing methods require these properties for applications such as defect detection and simulation of L-PBF processes. Industrial standards for L-PBF processes and components can use the data for thermal applications. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to make coupled thermal conductivity maps that were matched to microstructure for L-PBF AlSi10Mg aluminum alloy. This was achieved by a unique in-house thermal conductivity mapping setup and relating the data to local SEM EBSD maps. This provides the first conclusive proof that larger grain sizes can achieve higher thermal conductivity for this processing method and material system. This study also shows that control of the solidification can result in higher thermal conductivity. It was also the first to find that the build substrate (with or without support) has a large effect on thermal conductivity.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 3, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 28, 2023
  3. Despite the well-known tendency for many alloys to undergo ordering transformations, the microscopic mechanism of ordering and its dependence on alloy composition remains largely unknown. Using the example of Pt 85 Fe 15 and Pt 65 Fe 35 alloy nanoparticles (NPs), herein we demonstrate the composition-dependent ordering processes on the single-particle level, where the nanoscale size effect allows for close interplay between surface and bulk in controlling the phase evolution. Using in situ electron microscopy observations, we show that the ordering transformation in Pt 85 Fe 15 NPs during vacuum annealing occurs via the surface nucleation and growth of L1 2 -ordered Pt 3 Fe domains that propagate into the bulk, followed by the self-sacrifice transformation of the surface region of the L1 2 Pt 3 Fe into a Pt skin. By contrast, the ordering in Pt 65 Fe 35 NPs proceeds via an interface mechanism by which the rapid formation of an L1 0 PtFe skin occurs on the NPs and the transformation boundary moves inward along with outward Pt diffusion. Although both the “nucleation and growth” and the “interface” mechanisms result in a core–shell configuration with a thin Pt-rich skin, Pt 85 Fe 15 NPs have an L1more »2 Pt 3 Fe core, whereas Pt 65 Fe 35 NPs are composed of an L1 0 PtFe core. Using atomistic modeling, we identify the composition-dependent vacancy-assisted counterdiffusion of Pt and Fe atoms between the surface and core regions in controlling the ordering transformation pathway. This vacancy-assisted diffusion is further demonstrated by oxygen annealing, for which the selective oxidation of Fe results in a large number of Fe vacancies and thereby greatly accelerates the transformation kinetics.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 5, 2023
  4. ABSTRACT We report a facile method to fabricate CuNi nano-octahedra and nanocubes using a colloidal synthesis approach. The CuNi nanocrystals terminated with exclusive crystallographic facets were controlled and achieved by a group of synergetic capping ligands in a hot solution system. Specifically, the growth of {111}-bounded CuNi nano-octahedra is derived by a thermodynamic control, whereas the generation of {100}-terminated CuNi nanocubes is steered by a kinetic capping of chloride. Using a reduction of 4-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride as a model reaction, CuNi nano-octahedra and nanocubes demonstrated a strong facet-dependence due to their different surface energies although both exhibited remarkable catalytic activity with the high rate constant over mass (k/m). A kinetic study indicated that this is a pseudo first-order reaction with an excess of sodium borohydride. CuNi nanocubes as the catalysts showed better catalytic performance (k/m = 385 s -1 •g -1 ) than the CuNi nano-octahedra (k/m = 120 s -1 •g -1 ), indicating that 4-nitrophenol and hydrogen were adsorbed on the {100} facets with their molecules parallel to the surface much easier than those on {111} facets.
  5. Abstract

    Although many materials have been studied for the purpose of microwave absorption, SiO2has never been reported as a good candidate. In this study, we present for the first time that doped, microwave conductive SiO2nanoparticles can possess an excellent microwave absorbing performance. A large microwave reflection loss (RL) of −55.09 dB can be obtained. The large microwave absorption originates mainly from electrical relaxation rather than the magnetic relaxation of the incoming microwave field. The electrical relaxation is attributed to a large electrical conductivity that is enabled by the incorporation of heterogeneous (N, C and Cl) atoms. The removal of the magnetic susceptibility only results in a negligible influence of the microwave absorption. In contrast, the removal of the heterogeneous atoms leads to a large decrease in the electrical conductivity and microwave absorption performance. Meanwhile, the microwave absorption characteristics can be largely adjusted with a change of the thickness, which provides large flexibility for various microwave absorption applications.